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An economic recession can result from a lowering of

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An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2009, 06:42
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A
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D
E

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62% (02:18) correct 38% (01:09) wrong based on 134 sessions
35. An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2009, 08:45
IMO E.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates. >>It should be low employment rates, ..consumer spending and to start...

a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates. mismatch verbs

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.should be causes

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.to cut and staring ..mismatch verb..

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.this is correct. causing is referring to the entire clause. spending and starting is correct too.
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2009, 08:57
I also thought the answer would be E, but the brutal SC thread shows that OA is C. Does anybody have a clue? I also have other brutal SC thread problems that I am not clear with OAs, and couldn't find clear explanations from previous thread because some thread shows different opinions. So I decided to post all the confusing ones here again, so please feel free to leave your comments.
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2009, 11:11
IMO E..

a,b,c have modifier problem and d is redundant(people-consumer spending)

I hope it helps :)
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2009, 04:54
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kairoshan wrote:
I also thought the answer would be E, but the brutal SC thread shows that OA is C. Does anybody have a clue? I also have other brutal SC thread problems that I am not clear with OAs, and couldn't find clear explanations from previous thread because some thread shows different opinions. So I decided to post all the confusing ones here again, so please feel free to leave your comments.



After a more careful analysis, i feel that OA is correct. I initially chose E but now I think C is correct.

E is not correct because of incorrect usage of "that". "that"should refer to singular noun. In E, "that" is referring to employment rates.
E would have been correct without "that are"

C - Correct
falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

"falling inteterst rates triggered by a drop in investment" is correct. Identifier "that" is not required to refer back to the interest rates. "THAT" is used as identifier to refer back to ONE rate among many rates.

The use of "which" is also correct in the sentence.
It is a general understanding that which refers to the WORD preceded by ",". In this case "which" seems to refer to investment. BUT the correct use of which is to refer back to the NOUN/NOUN CLAUSE preceding the ","
Here "which" is refering to the noun clause "drop in investment" and not "investment.


Nice question. It took me a day of figure out why C is correct. kudos for you.
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2009, 08:00
duttarupam wrote:
kairoshan wrote:
I also thought the answer would be E, but the brutal SC thread shows that OA is C. Does anybody have a clue? I also have other brutal SC thread problems that I am not clear with OAs, and couldn't find clear explanations from previous thread because some thread shows different opinions. So I decided to post all the confusing ones here again, so please feel free to leave your comments.



After a more careful analysis, i feel that OA is correct. I initially chose E but now I think C is correct.

E is not correct because of incorrect usage of "that". "that"should refer to singular noun. In E, "that" is referring to employment rates.
E would have been correct without "that are"

C - Correct
falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

"falling inteterst rates triggered by a drop in investment" is correct. Identifier "that" is not required to refer back to the interest rates. "THAT" is used as identifier to refer back to ONE rate among many rates.

The use of "which" is also correct in the sentence.
It is a general understanding that which refers to the WORD preceded by ",". In this case "which" seems to refer to investment. BUT the correct use of which is to refer back to the NOUN/NOUN CLAUSE preceding the ","
Here "which" is refering to the noun clause "drop in investment" and not "investment.


Nice question. It took me a day of figure out why C is correct. kudos for you.



I am not quite clear with your explanation.
That is a relative conjuntion, which can take either a singular noun or a plural noun.
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2009, 23:41
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i still dont feel C is the answer i opt E

there is a similar Q with diff options posted in
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/an- ... t1071.html

for this Q the OA is C (agree with it)
may be the OA we are refering to is for this Question. please look the Question and confirm :?
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2009, 23:42
one thing i quite clear which can not refer to a phrase
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 02 Oct 2009, 18:50
The Brutal SC document is great; it really has brutal questions. But it also has typos (have gone over the first 35 and found typos on q11 & q21), and some very poor questions.

This question is horrible. I hope that not too many people are falling into the trap of trying to justify a bad answer.

Chandru42: thanks for finding that Manhattan GMAT post. It has the good version of this question.

It is clear that the answer could only be C or E. But both are wrong.

C
-> "which cause" is unclear. I do not agree with the previous poster. It could refer to either "employment rates" or "drop in investment". It is "falling employment rates" that cause the "cutbacks in consumer spending".
-> "cutbacks in consumer spending" do not start "a cycle of layoffs"; "falling employment rates" do.
-> "which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs" lacks parallelism.

E
-> "that are triggered by" is wordy
-> "leading" should be replaced by "that lead to"; doing so would add clarity to the sentence.

E is wordy. C is ambiguous and distorts the meaning of the sentence. If forced to choose between C or E, I would go for E.

Here's the answer C provided in the Manhattan post: "c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates." This question was taken from a Manhattan GMAT CAT.
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2009, 06:38
riteshbindal wrote:
Is it E?


It is neither C or E. But OA is C.

See http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/an- ... t1071.html
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 31 Oct 2009, 08:01
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The word "which" modifies the word directly in front of it. In this case, the phrase "which cause cutbacks in consumer spending" modifies "investment." This doesn't sound right at all.

It seems that the Manhattan version, a clear and easy question, does not match the Brutal SC version. This discrepancy, I think, explains the confusion surrounding this problem.

Nice observation, guys!
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 03 Nov 2009, 01:35
That vs Which


Both of these sentences are correct in GMAT :
· Please go into the room and get me the big book, which is mine.
· Please go into the room and get me the big book that is mine.



· Please go into the room and get me the big book, which is mine.

In this sentence, the clause which is mine is "extra" because the information "the big book" is
enough to identify which book it is that you want. We can assume that there is only one big book
in the room.
· Please go into the room and get me the big book that is mine.

In this sentence, the clause that is mine is "necessary" because the information "the big book" is
NOT enough to identify which book it is that you want--it is probably the case that there are
several big books in the room, so I need to add the information "that is mine" to identify which
book it is that I want


Now coming back to problem



E.falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.


Here That is referring to Specific type of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

It also means other employments rates are not triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

so E is Illogical.


If you consider C

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

Here the clause which cause cutbacks is extra even if u omit which its not gonna affect the sentence.
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 03 Nov 2009, 02:00
The ques given here has "WHICH" in option C (thats how it differs from manhattan's quesas posted by powerka) and as we know "which" cannot refer to a phrase so is wrong...

E is correct ans.
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Re: Brutal #35 [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2011, 19:44
A, B, C are out which is referring to clause [should refer to preceding noun only] "a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment"
b/w D & E, I think E




the answer choices posted are not correct [we are choosing best answer, not correct and I think D is best in given case] , original question is:

An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
a. a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

b a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

d. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

e. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

C is correct in this case
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink] New post 03 Nov 2011, 06:34
C it is... check out the Manhattan link. It clears things up
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink] New post 10 Nov 2011, 13:17
A. lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates. Lowering of employment Rates is WRONG

B. lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates. Lowering of employment Rates is WRONG


C. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

D.falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

E.falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

D& E are wrong due to following reason..
"That" is a relative pronoun, so it can only refer to a single subject not a phrase or a clause. In D& E , That refers to Falling Employment Rates. ....

So 'C' is Left which is the right Answer...
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink] New post 02 Feb 2012, 13:44
IMO E, did not get why is C correct
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2012, 16:12
I don't think C is correct. One of the reasons is - If 'drop in investment' as noun clause is being referred by 'which', then it is a singular form and should be followed by 'causes cutbacks' and not 'cause cutbacks'.

E is better and less awkward :)
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2012, 07:46
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The problem seems to be the mix up with the Manhattan Thread. The OA of the Manhattan topic( C) has been religiously taken, forgetting that the order of the choices in gmatclub example is altered. The C of Manhattan is actually the E of gmatclub thread and hence the copycat OA C is wrong; it should be E in fact.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2012, 08:31
daagh wrote:
The problem seems to be the mix up with the Manhattan Thread. The OA of the Manhattan topic( C) has been religiously taken, forgetting that the order of the choices in gmatclub example is altered. The C of Manhattan is actually the E of gmatclub thread and hence the copycat OA C is wrong; it should be E in fact.


Daagh, sorry but the link has the same answers. Correct answer is C.

I think one important thing to note is that "which" in answer C actually refers to the drop in investing. There is an excelent post from E Gmat users that is quite clear on how which can refer to drop in investing. Sorry for not publishing the link, but I couldnt find it.

Cheers

C falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of   [#permalink] 27 Sep 2012, 08:31
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