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Answer this Challenging RC set with detailed solutions [#permalink]
24 Aug 2014, 10:03
Please answer this set of RC with detailed answers, i.e. why the right answer is right and why the rest of the options are rejected.
And yet the pamphlet reveals some of the tangled roots from which the later concept of the "original" or "primitive" genius grew. For here are two prerequisites of that later, more extravagant concept. One is the author's positive delight in the infinite differences of human temperaments and talents--a delight from which might spring the preference for original or unique works of art. The other is his conviction that there is something necessary and foreordained about those differences: a conviction essential to faith in the artist who is apparently at the mercy of a genius beyond his own control. The importance of this latter belief was long ago indicated in Paul Kaufman's "Heralds of Original Genius."
While his tone is perhaps more exuberant than that of most of his immediate contemporaries, there is nothing particularly new in our author's interest in those aspects of human nature which render a man different from his fellows. It is true that the main stress of neoclassical thought had rested on the fundamental likeness of all men in all ages, and had sought an ideal and universal norm in morals, conduct, and art. But there had always been counter currents making for a recognition of the inescapable differences among various races and individuals. Such deviations were often merely tolerated, but toward the close of the seventeenth century more and more voices had praised human diversity. England, in particular, began to take notice of the number of "originals" abounding in the land.
At least as old as the delight in human differences was the belief in the foreordained nature of at least those differences resulting in specific vocational aptitudes. This is the conviction that each man has at birth--innately and inevitably--a peculiar "bent" for some particular contribution to human society. Environment is not ignored by the man who wrote "Of Genius," for he insists that each man's bent may be greatly developed by favorable circumstances and proper education, and, conversely, that it may be entirely frustrated by unpropitious circumstances or willful neglect. But in no way can a man's inborn talent for one thing be converted to a talent for anything else.
In the works of many writers, too, it is easy to see how the enthusiasm for individualism, later to become one of the hallmarks of romanticism, actually sprang from an earlier faith in a God-directed universe of law and order. There is a kind of universal law of supply and demand, and the argument is simply that each link in the human chain, like those in the animate and inanimate worlds above and below it, is predestined to a specific function for the better ordering of the whole.
This same comparison between the body politic and the body human occurs in the essay, and even the author's chief analogy drawn from musical harmony bears with it some of the flavor of an older system of universal correspondences. His comparison of the force of genius to the pull of gravity, however, evokes a newer picture. Yet it is a picture no less orderly and one from which the preordained function of each individual could be just as logically derived. And his rhapsodic praise of the infinite diversity of human temperaments is based on that favorite comparison with natural scenery and that familiar canon of neoclassical aesthetics: ordered variety within unity, whether it be in nature or in art.
A man is born not only with a peculiar aptitude for the vocation of writing, but with a peculiar aptitude for a particular style of writing. Some such aptitude had presumably resulted in that individuality of style, that particular "character," which critics were busily searching out in each of the writers of Scripture.
Individuality or originality in the form or plan of a work of art, however, was quite another thing, and praise of it far more rare. Yet there had always been protests against the imposition of a universal classical standard, and our author's insistence that some few geniuses have the right to discard the "Rules of Art" and all such "Leading-strings" follows a well-worn path of reasoning.
1. The author’s positive delight in the infinite differences of human temperaments:
A. follows a well worn path of reasoning.
B. is more exuberant than most of his modern contemporaries.
C. is the reason for his conviction that there is something necessary and preordained.
D. will spring the preference for original or unique works of art.
2. The author has stated ‘differences resulting in specific vocational aptitudes’ to:
A. provide an example of England’s acceptance of unity in diversity.
B. provide a cause-effect relationship between circumstances and outcome.
C. elucidate the human soul’s permanent state and to state that any attempt to change its basic desire will be futile.
D. show similarity with what is predestined to a specific function for the better ordering of the whole.
3. “England, in particular, began to take notice of the number of ‘originals’ abounding in the land” has been stated in order to:
A. show the English double standards - rejecting first and accepting later.
B. give a glimpse of English acceptance of ‘the sum of parts is greater than the whole’.
C. show that the author’s assertion is similar to the fundamental beliefs of neo-classical thought.
D. state that the author of the book being discussed in the passage was not the originator of the ideology presented in the passage
4. Musical harmony and force of gravity are stated together because:
A. there is commonality in the ways the same idea is presented.
B. there are differences in the commonality of the presentation of the same idea.
C. a line of reasoning can be applied to both.
D. body politic and body human occur in the same essay.
5. Praise for individuality or originality was quite rare because:
A. it was not in the form or plan of a work of art.
B. it was not in the true form or plan of a work of art.
C. there had always been protests against the imposition of a universal classical standard.
D. it was not in consonance with the thought processes of the times.