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Anthropologist David Mandelbaum makes a distinction between

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Anthropologist David Mandelbaum makes a distinction between [#permalink] New post 07 May 2011, 01:52
Anthropologist David Mandelbaum makes a distinction between life-passage studies and life-history studies which emerged primarily out of research concerning Native Americans. Life-passage studies, he says, “emphasize the requirements of society, showing how groups socialize and enculturate their young in order to make them into viable members of society.” Life histories, however, “emphasize the experiences and requirements of the individual, how the person copes with society rather than how society copes with the stream of individuals.” Life-passage studies bring out the general cultural characteristics and commonalities that broadly define a culture, but are unconcerned with an individual’s choices or how the individual perceives and responds to the demands and expectations imposed by the constraints of his or her culture. This distinction can clearly be seen in the autobiographies of Native American women.

For example, some early recorded autobiographies, such as The Autobiography of a Fox , a life passage recorded by anthropologist Truman Michelson, emphasizes prescribed roles. The narrator presents her story in a way that conforms with tribal expectations. Michelson’s work is valuable as ethnography, as a reflection of the day-to-day responsibilities of Mesquakie women, yet as is often the case with life-passage studies, it presents little of the central character’s psychological motivation. The Fox woman’s life story focuses on her tribal education and integration into the ways of her people, and relates only what Michelson ultimately decided was worth preserving. The difference between the two types of studies is often the result of the amount of control the narrator maintains over the material; autobiographies in which there are no recorder-editors are far more reflective of the life-history category, for there are no outsiders shaping the story to reflect their preconceived notions of what the general cultural patterns are.

For example, in Maria Campbell’s account of growing up as a Canadian Metis who was influenced strongly, and often negatively, by the non-Native American world around her, one learns a great deal about the life of Native American women, but Campbell’s individual story, which is told to us directly, is always the center of her narrative. Clearly it is important to her to communicate to the audience what her experiences as a Native American have been. Through Campbell’s story of her family the reader learns of the effect of poverty and prejudice on a people. The reader becomes an intimate of Campbell the writer, sharing her pain and celebrating her small victories. Although Campbell’s book is written as a life history (the dramatic moments, the frustrations, and the fears are clearly hers), it reveals much about ethnic relations in Canada while reflecting the period in which it was written.

1. Which one of the following is the most accurate expression of the main point of the passage?
(A) The contributions of life-history studies to anthropology have made life-passage studies obsolete.
(B) Despite their dissimilar approaches to the study of culture, life-history and life-passage studies have similar goals.
(C) The autobiographies of Native American women illustrate the differences between life-history and life-passage studies.
(D) The roots of Maria Campbell’s autobiography can be traced to earlier narratives such as The Autobiography of a Fox Indian Woman.
(E) Despite its shortcomings, the life-passage study is a more effective tool than the life-history study for identifying important cultural patterns.

2. The term “prescribed roles” in line 24 of the passage refers to the
(A) Function of life-passage studies in helping ethnologists to understand cultural tradition.
(B) Function of life-history studies in helping ethnologists to gather information.
(C) Way in which a subject of a life passage views himself or herself.
(D) Roles clearly distinguishing the narrator of an autobiography from the recorder of an autobiography.
(E) Roles generally adopted by individuals in order to comply with cultural demands.

3. The reference to the “psychological motivation” (line 30) of the subject of The Autobiography of a Fox Indian Woman serves primarily to
(A) Dismiss as irrelevant the personal perspective in the life-history study.
(B) Identify an aspect of experience that is not commonly a major focus of life-passage studies.
(C) Clarify the narrator’s self-acknowledged purpose in relating a life passage.
(D) Suggest a common conflict between the goals of the narrator and those of the recorder in most life-passage studies.
(E) Assert that developing an understanding of an individual’s psychological motivation usually undermines objective ethnography.

4. Which one of following statements about Maria Campbell can be inferred from material in the passage?
(A) She was familiar with the very early history of her tribe but lacked insight into the motivations of non-Native Americans.
(B) She was unfamiliar with Michelson’s work but had probably read a number of life-passage studies about Native Americans.
(C) She had training as a historian but was not qualified as an anthropologist.
(D) Her family influenced her beliefs and opinions more than the events of her time did.
(E) Her life history provides more than a record of her personal experience.

5. According to the passage, one way in which life history studies differ from life-passage studies is that life-history studies are
(A) Usually told in the subject’s native language.
(B) Less reliable because they rely solely on the subject’s recall.
(C) More likely to be told without the influence of an intermediary.
(D) More creative in the way they interpret the subject’s cultural legacy.
(E) More representative of the historian’s point of view than of the ethnographer’s.

6. Which one of the following pairings best illustrates the contrast between life passages and life histories?
(A) A study of the attitudes of a society toward a mainstream religion and an analysis of techniques used to instruct members of that religious group.
(B) A study of how a preindustrial society maintains peace with neighboring societies and a study of how a postindustrial society does the same.
(C) A study of the way a military organization establishes and maintains discipline and a newly enlisted soldier’s narrative describing his initial responses to the military environment.
(D) An analysis of a society’s means of subsistence and a study of how its members celebrate religious holidays.
(E) A political history of a society focusing on leaders and parties and a study of how the electorate shaped the political landscape of the society.

will provide the OA after discussion
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Re: LSAT10 [#permalink] New post 12 May 2011, 00:07
My take:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Passage structure:
1st paragraph: Anthropologist David Mandelbaum makes a distinction between life-passage studies and life-history studies. This distinction can clearly be seen in the autobiographies of Native American women.

2nd paragraph: An example of an early recorded autobiographies - The Autobiography of a Fox - shows the difference b/w life passage and life history.

3rd paragraph: Another example of life history -- Maria Campbell’s account of growing up as a Canadian Metis.

Main idea of the passage: The author is trying to make the distinction between life-passage studies and life-history studies through the autobiographies of Native American women.

1. Which one of the following is the most accurate expression of the main point of the passage?
(A) The contributions of life-history studies to anthropology have made life-passage studies obsolete. -- not mentioned
(B) Despite their dissimilar approaches to the study of culture, life-history and life-passage studies have similar goals. -- incorrect; the goals are different as stated in 1st para
(C) The autobiographies of Native American women illustrate the differences between life-history and life-passage studies. -- correct. refer to the passage structure above
(D) The roots of Maria Campbell’s autobiography can be traced to earlier narratives such as The Autobiography of a Fox Indian Woman. -- no where in the passage mentions this info --> incorrect
(E) Despite its shortcomings, the life-passage study is a more effective tool than the life-history study for identifying important cultural patterns. -- not mentioned

2. The term “prescribed roles” in line 24 of the passage refers to the
The sentence contains this term is:
For example, some early recorded autobiographies, such as The Autobiography of a Fox , a life passage recorded by anthropologist Truman Michelson, emphasizes prescribed roles. The narrator presents her story in a way that conforms with tribal expectations.
--> prescribed roles is put in the circumstance of a life passage. we should refer to the 1st para about the characters/goals of life passage -- that is: “emphasize the requirements of society, showing how groups socialize and enculturate their young in order to make them into viable members of society.”


(A) Function of life-passage studies in helping ethnologists to understand cultural tradition. -- not true
(B) Function of life-history studies in helping ethnologists to gather information. -- not mentioned
(C) Way in which a subject of a life passage views himself or herself. -- not true
(D) Roles clearly distinguishing the narrator of an autobiography from the recorder of an autobiography. -- not true
(E) Roles generally adopted by individuals in order to comply with cultural demands. -- this info can be confirmed in para 1 that individuals should comply to the requirements of society to become viable members of society.

3. The reference to the “psychological motivation” (line 30) of the subject of The Autobiography of a Fox Indian Woman serves primarily to
We find this term in the following sentence (in para 2):
Michelson’s work is valuable as ethnography, as a reflection of the day-to-day responsibilities of Mesquakie women, yet as is often the case with life-passage studies, it presents little of the central character’s psychological motivation.
--> psychological motivation is not the central concentration of life-passage studies.


(A) Dismiss as irrelevant the personal perspective in the life-history study. -- life-history study is not mentioned here. the term lies in the situation of life-passage study.
(B) Identify an aspect of experience that is not commonly a major focus of life-passage studies. -- correct; Michelson’s work presents little of the central character's psychological motivation as it is a life-passage study.
(C) Clarify the narrator’s self-acknowledged purpose in relating a life passage. -- irrelevant
(D) Suggest a common conflict between the goals of the narrator and those of the recorder in most life-passage studies. -- it's not a conflict.
(E) Assert that developing an understanding of an individual’s psychological motivation usually undermines objective ethnography. -- not mentioned

4. Which one of following statements about Maria Campbell can be inferred from material in the passage?
we refer to para 3 for information about Maria Campbell:
Clearly it is important to her to communicate to the audience what her experiences as a Native American have been. Through Campbell’s story of her family the reader learns of the effect of poverty and prejudice on a people. The reader becomes an intimate of Campbell the writer, sharing her pain and celebrating her small victories. Although Campbell’s book is written as a life history (the dramatic moments, the frustrations, and the fears are clearly hers), it reveals much about ethnic relations in Canada while reflecting the period in which it was written.
--> Campbell's book does reveal not only about her life history but also about ethnic relations in Canada.


(A) She was familiar with the very early history of her tribe but lacked insight into the motivations of non-Native Americans.
(B) She was unfamiliar with Michelson’s work but had probably read a number of life-passage studies about Native Americans.
(C) She had training as a historian but was not qualified as an anthropologist.
(D) Her family influenced her beliefs and opinions more than the events of her time did.
(E) Her life history provides more than a record of her personal experience. -- see the explanation above.

5. According to the passage, one way in which life history studies differ from life-passage studies is that life-history studies are
we come back to para 1 for the difference b/w these two studies:
Life-passage studies “emphasize the requirements of society, showing how groups socialize and enculturate their young in order to make them into viable members of society.” Life histories, however, “emphasize the experiences and requirements of the individual, how the person copes with society rather than how society copes with the stream of individuals.”
--> life-history studies focus on the experiences of the individual.


(A) Usually told in the subject’s native language.
(B) Less reliable because they rely solely on the subject’s recall.
(C) More likely to be told without the influence of an intermediary. -- this choice shows the difference. see the explanation above.
(D) More creative in the way they interpret the subject’s cultural legacy.
(E) More representative of the historian’s point of view than of the ethnographer’s.

6. Which one of the following pairings best illustrates the contrast between life passages and life histories?
* Life passages:
- emphasize the requirements of society, showing how groups socialize and enculturate their young in order to make them into viable members of society.
- bring out the general cultural characteristics and commonalities that broadly define a culture, but are unconcerned with an individual’s choices or how the individual perceives and responds to the demands and expectations imposed by the constraints of his or her culture
* Life histories: emphasize the experiences and requirements of the individual, how the person copes with society rather than how society copes with the stream of individuals


(A) A study of the attitudes of a society toward a mainstream religion and an analysis of techniques used to instruct members of that religious group.
(B) A study of how a preindustrial society maintains peace with neighboring societies and a study of how a postindustrial society does the same.
(C) A study of the way a military organization establishes and maintains discipline and a newly enlisted soldier’s narrative describing his initial responses to the military environment.
(D) An analysis of a society’s means of subsistence and a study of how its members celebrate religious holidays.
(E) A political history of a society focusing on leaders and parties and a study of how the electorate shaped the political landscape of the society.

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Re: LSAT10 [#permalink] New post 15 May 2011, 09:43
will provide the oa soon.
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Re: LSAT10 [#permalink] New post 17 May 2011, 04:26
C
E
B
E
C
C
the reasons are same as explained by windofchange
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Re: LSAT10 [#permalink] New post 18 May 2011, 07:18
P1: Introduces Life Passage studies -- emphasis on society and Life history studies - emphasis on individual.

P2: Life passage : explains how narrator maintains control over the material

P3: Life History: Campbell's book and all the other things that the book

1) Last sentence of P1 -- "This distinction can clearly be seen in the autobiographies of Native American women.".

Ans:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


2) By POE --
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


3) Physiological motivation

A) Dismiss as irrelevant the personal perspective in the life-history study. Author doesn't dismiss this as irrelevant
(B) Identify an aspect of experience that is not commonly a major focus of life-passage studies.
(C) Clarify the narrator’s self-acknowledged purpose in relating a life passage. Narrator doesn't self-acknowledge this
(D) Suggest a common conflict between the goals of the narrator and those of the recorder in most life-passage studies.
(E) Assert that developing an understanding of an individual’s psychological motivation usually undermines objective ethnography. Not relevant

B looks close.

4) The reader becomes an intimate of Campbell the writer, sharing her pain and celebrating her small victories. Although Campbell’s book is written as a life history (the dramatic moments, the frustrations, and the fears are clearly hers), it reveals much about ethnic relations in Canada while reflecting the period in which it was written.

So it can be inferred that Campbell reveals details other than her personal experiences.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


5) From P2: The difference between the two types of studies is often the result of the amount of control the narrator maintains over the material

So life history studies are more representative of historians point of view.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


6)
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


OA pleasee...
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Re: LSAT10 [#permalink] New post 20 May 2011, 08:45
1 - C

2 - E

3 - B

4 - E

5 - C

6 - C
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Re: LSAT10 [#permalink] New post 25 May 2011, 20:34
pls post the OA!!
thanks!
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Re: LSAT10   [#permalink] 25 May 2011, 20:34
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