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Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when

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Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when [#permalink] New post 25 Aug 2008, 16:45
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A
B
C
D
E

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Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when independence replaces dependence—that is, only when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within. In other words, the natives of a culture are the only ones who can move that culture forward. Non-natives may provide valuable advice, but any imposition of their views threatens independence and thus progress. If one looks at individual schools as separate cultures, therefore, the key to educational progress is obvious______

Which one of the following best completes the passage?

(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition
(B) some schools require more independence than others, depending on the initiative of their staffs and students
(C) school system officials must tailor their initiatives for change to each individual school in the system
(D) outsiders must be prevented from participation in schools’ effort to advance
(E) the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make
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Re: CR: Anthropologists and Culture (CR:1000) [#permalink] New post 25 Aug 2008, 17:29
hanumayamma wrote:
Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when independence replaces dependence—that is, only when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within. In other words, the natives of a culture are the only ones who can move that culture forward. Non-natives may provide valuable advice, but any imposition of their views threatens independence and thus progress. If one looks at individual schools as separate cultures, therefore, the key to educational progress is obvious______

Which one of the following best completes the passage?
Conclusion ??
The only two options for the conclusion are A and E.


(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition
(E) the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make.

Between A and E, E can be eliminated.
The premise "cultures advance ->(when) only when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within" states a condition for progress. And to conclude a progressive state ( the more X , the more Y ) we would need something more than the given premise.
Lets say if the premise were "cultures advance ->(AS)imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within", then may be E is better option. But currently what we have been provided is

"X happens only when Y happens" So best conclusion -
"For X to occur , Y must happen" And not
"The more X the more Y"

A for me.


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Re: CR: Anthropologists and Culture (CR:1000) [#permalink] New post 25 Aug 2008, 17:30
IMO E

EDIT .... I agree .. it should be A. Nice pick on Causation!
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Re: CR: Anthropologists and Culture (CR:1000) [#permalink] New post 26 Aug 2008, 06:09
Is A. B is wrong: the author talks about the importance of independence in the evolution of a culture, not about different levels of independence, as in B or E. C- wrong. D- outsiders could have good advices, so we don't need to eliminate them- wrong.
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Re: CR: Anthropologists and Culture (CR:1000) [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2008, 03:05
I would go for A, as out of A and E, only A talks about individual schools.
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Re: CR: Anthropologists and Culture (CR:1000) [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2008, 04:07
hanumayamma wrote:
Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when independence replaces dependence—that is, only when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within. In other words, the natives of a culture are the only ones who can move that culture forward. Non-natives may provide valuable advice, but any imposition of their views threatens independence and thus progress. If one looks at individual schools as separate cultures, therefore, the key to educational progress is obvious______

Which one of the following best completes the passage?

(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition -> We are talking about education progress hence this is invalid
(B) some schools require more independence than others, depending on the initiative of their staffs and students -> irrelevant
(C) school system officials must tailor their initiatives for change to each individual school in the system -> this is incorrect
(D) outsiders must be prevented from participation in schools’ effort to advance -> incorrect
(E) the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make -> this is apt

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Re: CR: Anthropologists and Culture (CR:1000) [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2008, 16:59
Thanks all.

Answer: A
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Re: CR: Anthropologists and Culture (CR:1000) [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2008, 18:13
A.

E looks good at first glance, but the stem never says More Independence equals More Progress.
Re: CR: Anthropologists and Culture (CR:1000)   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2008, 18:13
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