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Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when [#permalink]
11 Sep 2004, 19:32
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Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when independence replaces dependence---that is, only when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within.
In other words, the natives of a culture are the only ones who can move that culture foward. Non-natives may provide valuable advice, but any imposition of their views threatens independence and thus progress.
If one looks at individual schools as separate cultures, therefore, the key to educational progress is obvious:
which one of the following best completes the passage?
(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition
(B) some schools require more independence than others, depending on the initiative of their staffs and students
(C) school systems officials must tailor their initiatives for change to each individual school in the system
(D) outsiders must be prevented from participation in schoolsâ€™ efforts to advance
(E) the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make
B is out since there is no discussion on special cases.
C is out since it the natives of school who should take initiative, not the outsiders (School system guys)
D is out, since outsiders should not be prevented perse, they can still gve advice, but not any imposition.
Between A and E, I choose A. A sounds okay with the "key".
I was confused between A and E too. However I like E better. A states schools must be independent of outside imposition. However the question stem is a little more specific about outside impostion. The first sentence says - "only when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within."
Thus there's more than just removing imposition. I guess E is a more accurate summary in keeping with the spirit of the passage.
However I doubt the answer choices are GMAT quality. ETS usually never keeps such ambiguities as the one between A and E.
I am still not sure between a and e. can anybody explain.
the key to educational progress is obvious
a. individual schools must be independent of outside imposition
Key to progress is to remain independent.
e. the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make
The statement already mentioned that the KEY to educational progress is obvious. E is regurgitating the same info. It's like saying "the key to become smarter is obvious, the more he studies, the smarter he becomes." Therefore, E does not make any sense, the statement is running in a loop.
I think E requires the assumption that there is a perfect correlation between independence and progress - I don't see such an indication in the passage. I also feel a slight contradiction with the passage, because "non-natives may provide valuable advice", meaning that outside influence can actually facilitate progress.