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Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern

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Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern [#permalink] New post 21 Dec 2011, 14:41
Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began to walk upright because it freed their hands to use stone tools, which they had begun to make as the species evolved a brain of increased size and mental capacity. But discoveries of the three-million-year-old fossilized remains of our hominid ancestor Australopithecus have yielded substantial anatomical evidence that upright walking appeared prior to the dramatic enlargement of the brain and the development of stone tools.

Walking on two legs in an upright posture (bipedal locomotion) is a less efficient proposition than walking on all fours (quadrupedal locomotion) because several muscle groups that the quadruped uses for propulsion must instead to (?) provide the biped with stability and control. The shape and configuration of various bones must likewise be modified to allow the muscles to perform these functions in upright walking. Reconstruction of the pelvis (hipbones) and femur (thighbone) of “Lucy”, a three-million-year-old skeleton that is the most complete fossilized skeleton from the australopithecine era, has shown that they are much more like the corresponding bones of the modern human than like those of the most closely related living primate, the quadrupedal chimpanzee. Lucy’s wide, shallow pelvis is actually better suited to bipedal walking than is the rounder, bowl-like pelvis of the modern human, which (?) evolved to form the larger birth canal needed to accommodate the head of a large-brained human infant. By contrast, the head of Lucy’s baby could have been no larger than that of a baby chimpanzee.

If the small-brained australopithecines were not toolmakers, what evolutionary advantage did they gain by walking upright? (Line 50) One theory is that bipedality evolved in conjunction with the nuclear family: monogamous parents cooperating to care for their offspring. Walking upright permitted the father to use his hands to gather food and carry it to his mate from a distance, allowing the mother to devote more time and energy to nurturing and protecting their children. According to this view, the transition to bipedal walking may have occurred as long as ten million years ago, at the time of the earliest hominids, making it a crucial initiating event in human evolution.


20: the passage suggests that proponents of the theory mentioned in lines 50-54 (One theory is … offspring) assume that which of the following steps in human evolution occurred most recently?

A: development of a nuclear family structure
B: transition from walking on all fours to walking upright
C: dramatic enlargement of the brain
D: use of the hands to gather and carry food
E: modification of propulsive muscles to provide stability and control in locomotion


21: the passage suggests that, in comparison with the hominid australopithecines, modern humans are

A: less well adapted to large group cooperation
B: less well adapted to walking upright
C: more agile in running and climbing
D: more well suited to a nuclear family structure
E: more well suited to cooperative caring for their offspring


22: According to the passage, the hominid australopithecine most closely resembled a modern human with respect to which of the following characteristics?

A: brain size
B: tool making ability
C: shape of the pelvis
D: method of locomotion
E: preference for certain foods


23: the primary purpose of the passage is to


A: present an interpretation of the chronological relationship between bipedal locomotion and certain other key aspects of human evolution
B: compare the evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of bipedal locomotion to those of quadrupedal locomotion
C: argue that the transition to a nuclear family structure was a more crucial step in human evolution than was the development of stone tools
D: analyze anatomical evidence of bipedal locomotion to show that the large brain of modern humans developed at a later stage of evolution than was previously believed
E: use examples of muscle and bone structure to illustrate the evolutionary differences between modern humans, australopithecines, and
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Re: rc 1 Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of mode [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2011, 06:23
i am getting
1.c
2.d
3.c
4.c

answers pls !!
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Re: rc 1 Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of mode [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2012, 08:04
Please reply with OA .. Thanks
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Re: rc 1 Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of mode [#permalink] New post 22 Jan 2012, 05:35
Question 20 : C

The last paragraph suggest that the human started to walk upright before it developed large brain
It suggests the reason for walking upright as (1) nuclear family, (2)male collecting food using 2 hands. That understanding puts those options chronologically behind the development of large brain.

The last options remaining suggests the modifications of muscle as transition from walking on four feet to walking on 2 feet. We can associate this phase also to walking upright phase.... Thus answer C
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Re: rc 1 Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of mode [#permalink] New post 22 Jan 2012, 05:40
Q21: B


Q 22: There are two options that are close

Shape of pelvis and method of locomotion. I think C is a trap, this choice is obviously discussed on the second para. How ever the passage also suggests that the pelvic bone in modern humans evolved to accommodate children with large brains. SO there is some difference

But both are bipedal ..

So answer D

Q 23:C
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Re: rc 1 Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of mode [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2012, 23:42
B/D/C/C
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern [#permalink] New post 15 Apr 2012, 10:05
I got A/B/D/D prob wrong, any one has OA? Thnkx
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2012, 07:29
My option is C / E / D / A ...

OA pls??
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern [#permalink] New post 29 Apr 2012, 23:11
My answer is C, B, D, D. Eybrj2 , Please post the answer.
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern [#permalink] New post 30 Apr 2012, 20:46
My Answers are CBDA. so many different answers? what is the OA, please...

20 - C - Nuclear families and food gathering happened first, then transition to 2 legs, and stability later. last would be the big brain. so i chose C

23 - confused between ACD...
Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern   [#permalink] 30 Apr 2012, 20:46
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