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Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed

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Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:02
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A
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D
E

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Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed manuscripts written in contemporary European languages, leading archeologists to hypothesize that some manuscripts were brought to Northern Africa from Europe. However, the chemical composition of ink used at that time in Northern Africa was significantly different from that of ink used in Europe, and all the manuscripts found during the excavations were written with the same type of ink. Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa.

The argument above is most vulnerable to criticism on the basis that
(A)it fails to establish whether European manuscripts of that time had previously been found in Northern Africa.

(B)it fails to establish the likelihood that European manuscripts had been transported to Northern Africa.

(C)it fails to consider the possibility that African scribes knew European languages of that time.

(D)it fails to consider the possibility that all manuscripts found during the excavations had been written in Europe.

(E)it fails to consider the possibility that European scribes could have lived in Northern Africa at that time.




[Reveal] Spoiler:
Explanation: The argument above concludes that all manuscripts found during the excavations were written in Africa because they were written with the same ink and ink used in Europe was significantly different from ink used in Northern Africa. This argument is flawed since, as stated in Choice D, it fails to consider the possibility that all the manuscripts were written in Europe, which is quite possible since the argument did not specify whether they were all written with the ink used in Africa or with the ink used in Europe.

A) Whether European manuscripts had previously been found in Northern Africa is irrelevant to the origin of the manuscripts discussed here.

B) The likelihood of European manuscripts being transported to Northern Africa does not affect the possibility that the manuscripts were all written in Northern Africa.

C) If African scribes had known European languages, it would have been even more likely that the manuscripts had been written in Northern Africa, not brought from Europe.

D) orrect. This correctly points out a flaw of the argument.

E) If European scribes had lived in Northern Africa, then it would have been even more likely that those manuscripts had been written there and not brought from Europe.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by guerrero25 on 18 Apr 2013, 02:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:19
Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa.

The point on which the argument is weak is the fact that those manuscripts could have been written in Europe and then tranported to Africa.
That's exactly what B says.

IMO E doesn't adress the point:
(E)it fails to consider the possibility that European scribes could have lived in Northern Africa at that time.
This supports the argument, it's not a critic. If a scribe lives in Africa then the manuscripts "was either written or transcribed in Northern Africa" as the argument says: it's not a criticism to the argument.

My 2 cents
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:20
the argument is not about whether the scripts were written by European or African people .

i feel D sud be the answer !!
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:23
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neha24 wrote:
the argument is not about whether the scripts were written by European or African people .

i feel D sud be the answer !!


D is too strong
Too prove wrong the agrument " Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa."

We have to show that at least one has not been written or transported in Africa

(D)it fails to consider the possibility that all manuscripts found during the excavations had been written in Europe.

ALL is too strong
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:32
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Quote:
D is too strong
Too prove wrong the agrument " Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa."

We have to show that at least one has not been written or transported in Africa

(D)it fails to consider the possibility that all manuscripts found during the excavations had been written in Europe.

ALL is too strong


the point that B is missing is that all scripts were written with same ink .now if i take B as an answer then there might be a possibility that out of 100 scripts found 80 were brought from Europe and rest 20 were made in Africa .under this situation usage of different ink wud have been found in the excavation process but this was not the case !!
so yes we do need strong case to point to that if all scripts were transferred from europe then the ink of all scripts wud be same
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:45
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The only thing I can think of is that it might possibly be E... if a European lived in Africa and got the Ink, he could have moved to Europe and written the documents, then the documents could have been taken back at a later date.

That's a huge stretch but it's the only logical possibility.

To criticize it we need to have a way for African Ink to be somewhere other than Africa... and that's the only way I can think of that has an answer associated with it.

D would have been better if not for the word "all"

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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 00:07
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guerrero25 wrote:
Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed manuscripts written in contemporary European languages, leading archeologists to hypothesize that some manuscripts were brought to Northern Africa from Europe. However, the chemical composition of ink used at that time in Northern Africa was significantly different from that of ink used in Europe, and all the manuscripts found during the excavations were written with the same type of ink. Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa.

The argument above is most vulnerable to criticism on the basis that
(A)it fails to establish whether European manuscripts of that time had previously been found in Northern Africa.

(B)it fails to establish the likelihood that European manuscripts had been transported to Northern Africa.

(C)it fails to consider the possibility that African scribes knew European languages of that time.

(D)it fails to consider the possibility that all manuscripts found during the excavations had been written in Europe.

(E)it fails to consider the possibility that European scribes could have lived in Northern Africa at that time.


IMO: B
Premise 1: manuscripts written in contemporary European languages
Premise 2: INK was used in North Africa is different from INK used in Europe.
Premise 3: all manuscripts were written with the same type of ink
Conclusion: manuscripts were written or transcribed in N.Africa

KEY word here is INK (or chemical of ink). You can see failed logic from premise (2) and (3). The stimulus only says all manuscripts were written with the same type of ink, but it does not say what type of ink was used? Ink from Europe or Ink in North Africa.

There is a possibility that all manuscripts were written with the same type of ink that was used in Europe. If it's true, the manuscripts must be traveled from Europe to N. Africa. Hence, B is correct.

How about E. it says European scribes used to live in N. Africa. Okay, if the fact they used to live N. Africa is correct, the possibility they wrote manuscripts in N. Africa is undebatable. E does not attack the conclusion.
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 00:12
dave785 wrote:
The only thing I can think of is that it might possibly be E... if a European lived in Africa and got the Ink, he could have moved to Europe and written the documents, then the documents could have been taken back at a later date.

That's a huge stretch but it's the only logical possibility.

To criticize it we need to have a way for African Ink to be somewhere other than Africa... and that's the only way I can think of that has an answer associated with it.

D would have been better if not for the word "all"



I agree with your point, but it infers too far. I don't think this kind of logic is used in real GMAT. Because every answers could be true if they are inferred far enough.
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 00:14
pqhai wrote:
guerrero25 wrote:
Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed manuscripts written in contemporary European languages, leading archeologists to hypothesize that some manuscripts were brought to Northern Africa from Europe. However, the chemical composition of ink used at that time in Northern Africa was significantly different from that of ink used in Europe, and all the manuscripts found during the excavations were written with the same type of ink. Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa.

The argument above is most vulnerable to criticism on the basis that
(A)it fails to establish whether European manuscripts of that time had previously been found in Northern Africa.

(B)it fails to establish the likelihood that European manuscripts had been transported to Northern Africa.

(C)it fails to consider the possibility that African scribes knew European languages of that time.

(D)it fails to consider the possibility that all manuscripts found during the excavations had been written in Europe.

(E)it fails to consider the possibility that European scribes could have lived in Northern Africa at that time.


IMO: B
Premise 1: manuscripts written in contemporary European languages
Premise 2: INK was used in North Africa is different from INK used in Europe.
Premise 3: all manuscripts were written with the same type of ink
Conclusion: manuscripts were written or transcribed in N.Africa

KEY word here is INK (or chemical of ink). You can see failed logic from premise (2) and (3). The stimulus only says all manuscripts were written with the same type of ink, but it does not say what type of ink was used? Ink from Europe or Ink in North Africa.

There is a possibility that all manuscripts were written with the same type of ink that was used in Europe. If it's true, the manuscripts must be traveled from Europe to N. Africa. Hence, B is correct.

How about E. it says European scribes used to live in N. Africa. Okay, if the fact they used to live N. Africa is correct, the possibility they wrote manuscripts in N. Africa is undebatable. E does not attack the conclusion.


"Lived at that time" and "Lived the rest of their lives" are two separate meanings.

The fact that E specifies that the European scribes lived "at that time" rather than just saying"lived" gives further credence to E being the answer.

It cannot be B because we know that it is written in African ink. Remember, we are not attacking his evidence, only his conclusion.
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 00:32
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dave785 wrote:
"Lived at that time" and "Lived the rest of their lives" are two separate meanings.

The fact that E specifies that the European scribes lived "at that time" rather than just saying"lived" gives further credence to E being the answer.

It cannot be B because we know that it is written in African ink. Remember, we are not attacking his evidence, only his conclusion.


Your explanation of E is correct. I have no doubt. I just don't like the wording of the question (or maybe I pay attention too much on the wording). Thanks anyway.
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 01:15
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dave785 wrote :It cannot be B because we know that it is written in African ink.
Quote:


where in the passage is it written ?
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 01:27
Expert's post
Zarrolou wrote:
Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa.

The point on which the argument is weak is the fact that those manuscripts could have been written in Europe and then tranported to Africa.
That's exactly what B says.

IMO E doesn't adress the point:
(E)it fails to consider the possibility that European scribes could have lived in Northern Africa at that time.
This supports the argument, it's not a critic. If a scribe lives in Africa then the manuscripts "was either written or transcribed in Northern Africa" as the argument says: it's not a criticism to the argument.

My 2 cents


Quote:
Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa.


Pay attention to what the argument always concludes

Only E makes sense ;)
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 02:06
sincere apologies to all. I picked the wrong answer by mistake . The right answer is "D" . I have also put the OE below the question .
thank you !
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 02:28
Quote:
guerrero25 wrote :sincere apologies to all. I picked the wrong answer by mistake . The right answer is "D" . I have also put the OE below the question .
thank you !


so that means i was right !! . i guess now all those doubts of D using extreme language stands to rest . the fact of the matter is that here the argument needed that kind of answer .
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 02:54
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 03:43
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If African ink does not equal European ink, and "all" manuscripts found were written with the same type of ink, either they were all written in Africa by Europeans, or all of the manuscripts were written in Europe and sent to Africa.

And the last sentence says. "Clearly, all manuscripts found during the excavations were either written or transcribed in Northern Africa."

If the argument is basically using an, If X then Y logical fallacy, then to negate this notion would be to use the direct opposite logic and say, all of the manuscripts were written elsewhere. Introducing new information is bad in flawed logic CR problems.

Using all is important because if (D) did not say all, and said some of the manuscripts, then the argument would collapse because it would become to ambiguous.
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 07:51
neha24 wrote:
Quote:
dave785 wrote :It cannot be B because we know that it is written in African ink.
Quote:


where in the passage is it written ?


good catch!
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 09:07
dave785 wrote:
neha24 wrote:
Quote:
dave785 wrote :It cannot be B because we know that it is written in African ink.
Quote:


where in the passage is it written ?


good catch!



thanks !!
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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 11:16
Infact I also feel that E is the best answer......

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Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 11:33
I picked E.I think E is the correct answer.If i am wrong plz inform me where i am wrong
Re: Archeological excavations in Northern Africa revealed   [#permalink] 18 Apr 2013, 11:33
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