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Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently

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Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently [#permalink] New post 04 Oct 2010, 21:20
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Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently excavated Incan settlement, dating between 1320 and 1410 C.E., suggests that chickens were brought to the Americas by Polynesians before introduction by the Spaniards. It is also possible that contamination caused the specimens to appear older than they actually are. To settle this, scientists sequenced DNA from the ancient chicken bones and from Polynesian chickens and found that they share a genetic signature. A later genetic study revealed that the same signature is found in chickens from throughout Europe and Asia

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the findings of the later study?
(A) European explorers in the 16th century collected live animals from throughout the Americas and returned them to Europe for study and breeding.
(B) The Incas did not raise chicken for food.
(C) DNA sequencing is a reliable method of identifying the migration of species from one continent to another, even over a period of centuries.
(D) In diaries of Asian expeditions, European explorers refer to feasting on a game bird that may be related to the Polynesian chicken.
(E) The Spaniards did not introduce chickens to the Americas until at least 1500 C.E.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 04 Oct 2010, 23:02
BlueRobin wrote:
Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently excavated Incan settlement, dating between 1320 and 1410 C.E., suggests that chickens were brought to the Americas by Polynesians before introduction by the Spaniards. It is also possible that contamination caused the specimens to appear older than they actually are. To settle this, scientists sequenced DNA from the ancient chicken bones and from Polynesian chickens and found that they share a genetic signature. A later genetic study revealed that the same signature is found in chickens from throughout Europe and Asia

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the findings of the later study?
(A) European explorers in the 16th century collected live animals from throughout the Americas and returned them to Europe for study and breeding. This is the only option that explains how the same genetic sequqence could have gotten to Europe
(B) The Incas did not raise chicken for food. Irrelevant to the last point
(C) DNA sequencing is a reliable method of identifying the migration of species from one continent to another, even over a period of centuries. Again, irrelevant to the last point. This only relates to the method of identification and confirms that it is reliable. So it actually makes it harder to contest the finding but does not support it
(D) In diaries of Asian expeditions, European explorers refer to feasting on a game bird that may be related to the Polynesian chicken. Even if they did, doesnt explain how it got back to europe
(E) The Spaniards did not introduce chickens to the Americas until at least 1500 C.E.Irrelevant

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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2010, 00:21
I got to A by using POE, however I still am not able to understand why A? Anyone with alternative explanation?
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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2010, 04:59
BlueRobin wrote:
Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently excavated Incan settlement, dating between 1320 and 1410 C.E., suggests that chickens were brought to the Americas by Polynesians before introduction by the Spaniards. It is also possible that contamination caused the specimens to appear older than they actually are. To settle this, scientists sequenced DNA from the ancient chicken bones and from Polynesian chickens and found that they share a genetic signature. A later genetic study revealed that the same signature is found in chickens from throughout Europe and Asia

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the findings of the later study?
(A) European explorers in the 16th century collected live animals from throughout the Americas and returned them to Europe for study and breeding.
(B) The Incas did not raise chicken for food.
(C) DNA sequencing is a reliable method of identifying the migration of species from one continent to another, even over a period of centuries.
(D) In diaries of Asian expeditions, European explorers refer to feasting on a game bird that may be related to the Polynesian chicken.
(E) The Spaniards did not introduce chickens to the Americas until at least 1500 C.E.


I think answer is A
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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2010, 10:09
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pradeepskunwar wrote:
I got to A by using POE, however I still am not able to understand why A? Anyone with alternative explanation?


Here is my understanding.

Quote:
Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently excavated Incan settlement, dating between 1320 and 1410 C.E., suggests that chickens were brought to the Americas by Polynesians before introduction by the Spaniards. It is also possible that contamination caused the specimens to appear older than they actually are. To settle this, scientists sequenced DNA from the ancient chicken bones and from Polynesian chickens and found that they share a genetic signature. A later genetic study revealed that the same signature is found in chickens from throughout Europe and Asia


The whole information if summarized is as follows.

The paradox here is that The discovery of chicken bones suggests chickens were brough by polynesians BUT DNA results show a match not only between the dna of the ancient chicken bones and poly chickens but also between the dna of ancient chickens and euro and asia chickens.

So how can this be explained?

If there is evidence that chickens from america were introduced in europe and other places then it would bridge the gap.

So A does that by explaining that travellers from europe brought chickens from america to europe and hence the dna match is possible.

B, C, D, E do not offer an explanation.
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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2010, 11:58
BlueRobin wrote:
pradeepskunwar wrote:
I got to A by using POE, however I still am not able to understand why A? Anyone with alternative explanation?


Here is my understanding.

Quote:
Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently excavated Incan settlement, dating between 1320 and 1410 C.E., suggests that chickens were brought to the Americas by Polynesians before introduction by the Spaniards. It is also possible that contamination caused the specimens to appear older than they actually are. To settle this, scientists sequenced DNA from the ancient chicken bones and from Polynesian chickens and found that they share a genetic signature. A later genetic study revealed that the same signature is found in chickens from throughout Europe and Asia


The whole information if summarized is as follows.

The paradox here is that The discovery of chicken bones suggests chickens were brough by polynesians BUT DNA results show a match not only between the dna of the ancient chicken bones and poly chickens but also between the dna of ancient chickens and euro and asia chickens.

So how can this be explained?

If there is evidence that chickens from america were introduced in europe and other places then it would bridge the gap.

So A does that by explaining that travellers from europe brought chickens from america to europe and hence the dna match is possible.

B, C, D, E do not offer an explanation.



This is how it is resolved :

Event 1 : Polynesians bring chicken to the Americas
Fact : Europeans collected live animals from wherever they went
Event 2 : Europeans arrived in the Americas
Event 3 : Europeans take the live chicked from the Americas back with them, and these chicken are the reason we find the same "polynesian genetic sequence" back in Europe
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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2010, 12:40
A for me too.
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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2010, 17:21
nice xplanation
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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2010, 20:55
One more 3 min+ question. I arrived at A by POE. Had to read the choices couple of times. I was bit surprised by the fact that answers revolved around 16th century and thats what made me over think this question.
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Re: Multicultural chickens [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2011, 07:16
I can hardly agree with the OA only because there is not any other option which can be more suitable. The problem with the OA is that it, i.e. A, mentions "16th century". Even if we should try to find better explanation to the last study case we have to take into account the whole text. In this regard, in the text it is written that there is another cause which brings scientists into confusion, namely, the bones may seem older also in result of desease. Without rebutting this part of the text we can hardly proove that the chicken has brought to the Americas from Polynesia and then sent to Europe or Asia. Without disproving the illness as a cause we cannot tell the resemblance of the DNA among Polynesian, American, European and Asian chickens must be explained by what is given in A. On the other hand, it should not be required that one will have a special knowledge in some subject, in our case, in history, e.g.: whether the Europeans have not discovered the Americas before the latter came to contact with Polynesians.

Moreover, the word "returned" in the ans. choice A is not appropriate here. Words such as "brought" or "sent" would be here adequate and unambiguous.

I hope, in the true GMAT one does not face such confusing conditions.
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Re: Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently [#permalink] New post 12 Oct 2013, 14:27
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This appears to be a GMAT Hacks question of the day. It reappeared on May 7, 2013. The Official Explanation from the website is as follows:

Answer: A This is an explanation question. The information in the passage suggests that genetic evidence links ancient chickens from the Americas to Polynesian chickens, and also to chickens in Europe and Asia. We're looking for a choice that explains why the genetic signature for the ancient and Polynesian chickens is the same as that of the European and Asian chickens. (A) This is correct. If explorers took chickens that were related to the ancient chickens from the Americas, then bred them in Europe, it would explain the presence of the same genetic signature. (B) The use of the chickens is completely off-topic. (C) This is a general statement that doesn't explain or contradict the studies in the passage. Usually, such general statements are incorrect. (D) This choice suggests that chickens similar to Polynesian chickens may been in Asia for some time, but the words "may be" make the choice much weaker. (E) The study suggests that chickens first appeared in the Americas because they were introduced by someone other than the Spanish. If that ‘s the case, it doesn't matter when the Spaniards introduced chickens to the Americas.
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Re: Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently [#permalink] New post 13 Oct 2013, 02:20
A - European explorers in the 16th century collected live animals from throughout the Americas and returned them to Europe for study and breeding

only explains about European chicken...But it says nothing about asian chicken?

This made me sceptical abt this answer. Where did i go wrong?
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Re: Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently [#permalink] New post 13 Oct 2013, 08:58
adityapagadala wrote:
A - European explorers in the 16th century collected live animals from throughout the Americas and returned them to Europe for study and breeding

only explains about European chicken...But it says nothing about asian chicken?

This made me sceptical abt this answer. Where did i go wrong?



They share the same signature as the Europeans and asian chickens, So one should suffice no ?
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Re: Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently [#permalink] New post 13 Oct 2013, 18:00
ramannanda9 wrote:
adityapagadala wrote:
A - European explorers in the 16th century collected live animals from throughout the Americas and returned them to Europe for study and breeding

only explains about European chicken...But it says nothing about asian chicken?

This made me sceptical abt this answer. Where did i go wrong?



They share the same signature as the Europeans and asian chickens, So one should suffice no ?




i think the answer should explain why/how the signature is same in Both Eupoean and asian chickens.
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Re: Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently [#permalink] New post 13 Oct 2013, 19:27
The signature is same for both european and asian chicken, the answer does not need to explain why european and asian chickens are same, but why american samples are same.

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Re: Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently [#permalink] New post 13 Oct 2013, 19:46
ramannanda9 wrote:
The signature is same for both european and asian chicken, the answer does not need to explain why european and asian chickens are same, but why american samples are same.

Posted from my mobile device Image



Yes i accept that answer need not explain how european and asian are same.
But i think the answer should explain how the american and asian are same too? The answer explaisn why american and europian chickens are same, but how come the asian also have same signature?. Does the explorers came to asia too?

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the findings of the later study?

As later study also have statement that asian chicken have same signature. We know they are same, but I think answer need to explain why BOTH (european and asian) of them are same as american.
Option A doesnot help to explain how the signature is same in American and asian.

Correct me if i am wrong...!!
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Re: Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently [#permalink] New post 07 Aug 2014, 06:03
The discovery of chicken bones in a recently excavated Incan settlement, dating between 1320 and 1410 C.E., suggests that chickens were brought to the Americas by Polynesians before introduction by the Spaniards. ------->the introduction of chickens by the S was after 1410 C.E.; so, if there were chickens in Incan settlement it means that there were introduced by another source than previously thought
genetic signature among ancient chicken bones, P chickens ,and chickens throughout Europe and Asia are the same.
therefore, it is possible that the some of the American chickens took to S or the same chickens from P were taken to S.
A express similar idea.
Re: Archeologist: The discovery of chicken bones in a recently   [#permalink] 07 Aug 2014, 06:03
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