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# Art historians are using a process known as infrared

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Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]  15 Mar 2005, 19:51
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Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done
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Re: SC - Mona Lisa [#permalink]  15 Mar 2005, 20:19
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
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Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine
if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

'whether' is preferred over 'if' on the gmat. If should only be used when comparing similarities between objects.
So we can take out A and B.

(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
- present perfect suggests alteration is still done today

(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
- I like D. past tense 'altered' and it comes later after the painting was completed (since completion). And you need a passive 'was done' for the last phrase 'by many artists of the time)

(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done
- past perfect suggests alteration was done before completion of painitng. Not logical.

D it is.
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C is out. You can't employ a practice. and there is a passive construct at the end of the passage - 'by many artists...". You will therefore need 'was +past participle ' preceding it.

E.g. The rocket launched was watched by many people throughout the world.

Last edited by ywilfred on 15 Mar 2005, 22:17, edited 1 time in total.
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This is very tricky ...when to use "simple past tense" (was) versus past perfect ("had been")....

I read somewhere if two events both happened in past, we need to use "had been" else use was for completed events... Can someone explain the difference when to select had been and 'was'.?
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mowghli wrote:
This is very tricky ...when to use "simple past tense" (was) versus past perfect ("had been")....

I read somewhere if two events both happened in past, we need to use "had been" else use was for completed events... Can someone explain the difference when to select had been and 'was'.?

you can't use the past perfect here because the past perfect construction defies logic.

It says " whether it had been altered since completion "

You can't alter something that has not been completed.
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ywilfred wrote:
C is out. You can't employ a practice. and there is a passive construct at the end of the passage - 'by many artists...". You will therefore need 'was +past participle ' preceding it.

E.g. The rocket launched was watched by many people throughout the world.

The example that you have cited is not similar to the question that we are discussing.

Also, the non underlined portion of the sentence is using present continuous tense and the underlined portion has 'since' and is refering to an action that is possible in the present, so 'has' is just fine. Further, practice can certainly be employed and you cant use 'was' with since. So, C.
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Re: SC - Mona Lisa [#permalink]  16 Mar 2005, 00:37
Antmavel wrote:
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

C.

'if' is wrong. A,B out
C is out, because 'since' needs perfect tense.

E is out because of past perfect tense. 'had' implys 'alter' happens before 'first sketch'
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OA is C

'IF' or 'Whether'. Since 'IF' is not followed by a 'THEN' clause, 'Whether' is right. This means A and B are out.
Looking at D, we have 'whether it was done......, as was done' . 'as was done' surely is awkward. So D is out.
Between C and E..., E has 'a practice done' and C has 'a practice employed'. 'A Practice employed' seems right. C also has 'has been' - which is right. 'had been' and 'a practice done' together does'nt keep the tenses intact.
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MA wrote:
ywilfred wrote:
C is out. You can't employ a practice. and there is a passive construct at the end of the passage - 'by many artists...". You will therefore need 'was +past participle ' preceding it.
E.g. The rocket launched was watched by many people throughout the world.

you need has been with since.

Point noted. I was thinking too much again..
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whethere is always preferred. A and B are gone.. C is good..
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Re: SC - Mona Lisa [#permalink]  16 Mar 2005, 10:52
A and B can be eliminated for the use of "if".
D wrongly used past tense (need present perfect. Note the present tense in the main clause and the word "since").
E wrongly used past perfect tense.
Re: SC - Mona Lisa   [#permalink] 16 Mar 2005, 10:52
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# Art historians are using a process known as infrared

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