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As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on

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As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink] New post 23 Oct 2005, 19:15
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As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on Earth was bombarded on February 23, 1987, by about 100 billion neutrinos; fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact very weakly with matter.

(A) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that
(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(D) these harmless elementary particles are produced in nuclear reactions, and neutrinos
(E) these elementary particles, harmless products of nuclear reactions, are neutrinos that
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink] New post 21 May 2013, 03:36
it is easy to eliminate B and C.
It is hard to eliminate D and E.

D is wrong because we repeat the subject " Neutrinos". This is redundant and make us thing that the "these particles " and "neutious" are different.

E is wrong because "are neutrios" is not new. "neutrios" is already mentioned in the previous clause.

it takes me a long time to find out the errors in D and E. in the test room, if I am not calm, I can not find out the these errors.

VERY HARD.
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink] New post 26 May 2014, 23:54
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2014, 00:33
why E is wrong?

we have no clear reason for which E is wrong.

we have admit that we do not know why E is wrong
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2014, 04:27
doe007 wrote:
Here "produced in nuclear reactions" is not parallel to "which interact very weakly with matter".

Yes, and just to elaborate, this is because produced in nuclear reactions is a phrase, while which interact very weakly with matter is a clause. From a parallelism perspective, phrases are not considered parallel to clauses.

doe007 wrote:
Corrected form of the sentence would have been:
fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles which are produced in nuclear reactions and which interact very weakly with matter

This is interesting. A minor thing is that one would always expect a comma' before which in all such instances. However, a slightly larger issue is that which would modify harmless elementary particles, the nearest eligible noun-phrase. However, from the context of the sentence, it is apparent that produced in nuclear reactions and interact very weakly with matter are both properties of neutrinos.

Perhaps for this reason, the correction option A uses that (and not which). As a relative pronoun that is more flexible in what it can modify; in other words, that need not necessarily modify the nearest eligible noun-phrase. So, in this case, that would modify neutrinos.

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses differences between which & that, and their application in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink] New post 21 Sep 2014, 04:28
Answer is A- correct concise.
B- use of Which
c- SAME AS b
d- these - wrong usage
e- wrong meaning
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on   [#permalink] 21 Sep 2014, 04:28
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