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Since no OAs here, I thought I'd do the honors. had to google to get the oa. based on postings on various discussion boards, it appears this question has been doing the rounds since 2007! but the OAs are marked on very few discussion threads
The answers are: 10 - C; 11- E - the latter based on what a veritas person said on another forum.
As one who has always believed that truth is our nation’s surest weapon in the propaganda war against our foes, I am distressed by reports of “disinformation” campaigns by American intelligence agents in Western Europe. In a disinformation campaign, untruths are disseminated through gullible local journalists in order to damage the interests of our enemies and protect our own. Those who defend this practice say that lying is necessary to counter Soviet disinformation campaigns aimed at damaging America’s political interests. These apologists contend that one must fight fire with fire. I would point out to the apologists that the fire department finds water more effective.
10. The author of the passage above bases his conclusion on which of the following?
(A) A circular definition of “disinformation" Definitely not (B) An example of the ineffectiveness of lying as a weapon in the propaganda war The passage doesn't give any examples of lying not being effective (C) An analogy between truth and water The last sentence contains the only argument about why the truth is better than lying, and it's an analogy to fire departments using water (the truth) to fight fire (lying). (D) An appeal to the authority of the fire department No (E) An attack on the character of American intelligence agents in Western Europe Not contained in the passage
11. The author’s main point is that
(A) although disinformation campaigns may be effective, they are unacceptable on ethical grounds The passage doesn't mention ethics anywhere (B) America’s moral standing in the world depends on its adherence to the truth The passage doesn't mention morality (C) the temporary political gains produced by disinformation campaigns generally give way to long-term losses Not discussed in the article (D) Soviet disinformation campaigns have done little to damage America’s standing in Europe Also not mentioned in the article (E) disinformation campaigns do not effectively serve the political interests of the United States The first sentence states that the author believes the truth is the best weapon in the propaganda wars. So disinformation campaigns, which spread lies, are not effective weapons.