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# As you know, the GMAT is introducing some changes in SC

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Joined: 19 Feb 2010
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Kudos [?]: 151 [22] , given: 76

As you know, the GMAT is introducing some changes in SC [#permalink]  20 Sep 2011, 01:25
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As you know, the GMAT is introducing some changes in SC questions. Check this post for more information:
attention-gmat-takers-very-important-120728.html

Also, you may know that the Manhattan SC guide explains in the first chapter that one the the common mistakes relates to STYLE (Wordy/Awkward, Redundancy, and Altered intent). So the changes in meaning are already tested in the GMAT. The difference may be that there are no other grammatical errors in some of the options.

In order to practice for that, I have compiled 27 questions from the OG10 that involve this topic. Please note that in most cases, besides altered intent, there are other grammatical errors. So to better prepare, imagine those answer choices without the errors, and see the differences in meaning with the official answer.

This is just how I'm preparing, I don't guarantee success. If you don't want to risk, wait for prep companies' advice.

Please also take a look at 13 questions on altered intent from the OG12 here:
13-og12-questions-on-altered-intent-changes-in-meaning-120920.html

20. An array of tax incentives has led to a boom in the construction of new office buildings; so abundant has capital been for commercial real estate that investors regularly scour the country for areas in which to build.

(A) so abundant has capital been for commercial real estate that
(B) capital has been so abundant for commercial real estate, so that
(C) the abundance of capital for commercial real estate has been such,
(D) such has the abundance of capital been for commercial real estate that
(E) such has been an abundance of capital for commercial real estate,

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice A is best. The construction so abundant has capital been... that correctly and clearly expresses the relationship between the abundance and the investors' response. In choice B, the repetition of so is illogical and unidiomatic. Choices C, D, and E alter somewhat the intended meaning of the sentence; because of its position in these statements, such functions to mean "of a kind" rather than to intensify abundant. Choice D awkwardly separates has and been, and the omission of that from C and E makes those choices ungrammatical.

53. There is no consensus on what role, if any, is played by acid rain in slowing the growth or damaging forests in the eastern United States.

(A) slowing the growth or damaging
(B) the damage or the slowing of the growth of
(C) the damage to or the slowness of the growth of
(D) damaged or slowed growth of
(E) damaging or slowing the growth of

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: The corrected sentence must make clear that both damaging and slowing the growth of refer to forests. E is the only choice that does so without introducing errors. In choice A, of is required after growth. In choices B and C, the use of the damage instead of damaging produces awkward and wordy constructions, and without to after damage, B is grammatically incomplete. In C, the slowness of does not convey the original sense that the rate of growth has been slowed by acid rain. Choice D also changes the meaning of the sentence by making both damaged and slowed refer to growth.

76. Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today.

(A) of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(B) of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(C) that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(D) which is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely
accepted today
(E) which is widely accepted today is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of
the brain

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choices A and B are faulty because a relative clause beginning with that is needed to state Gall's hypothesis. The phrase of there being, as used in A, is wordy and unidiomatic; in B, of different mental functions does not convey Gall's point about those functions. Choices D and E are awkward and wordy, and both use which where that would be the preferred pronoun for introducing a clause that states Gall's point. Further, the phrasing of E misleadingly suggests that a distinction is being made between this hypothesis and others by Gall that are not widely accepted today. Choice C is best.

104. The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was largely vegetarian--vegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal, and meal cakes, and meat rarely.

(A) and meat rarely
(B) and meat was rare
(C) with meat as rare
(D) meat a rarity
(E) with meat as a rarity

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: The best answer here must qualify the statement made in the main clause. The diet... was largely vegetarian: it cannot be treated as part of the list of vegetarian foods. In other words, the best answer must logically and grammatically attach to the main clause when the list is omitted. Choice A fails this test: The diet… was largely vegetarian, and meat rarely. D fails also, because it lacks a function word such as with to link it to the main clause. The wording of choice B is imprecise and ambiguous--for example, it could mean that meat was scarce, or that it was not well done or medium. Choice C is unidiomatic. Clearly phrased, grammatically linked, and idiomatically sound, choice E is best.

110. It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year. (A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least$20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues (C) illiteracy costs the United States at least$20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy (E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least$20 billion a year because of
Illiteracy

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: In choices A, B, and D, the combined use of annual and a year is redundant. Choices A, D, and E are awkward and confused because other constructions intrude within the phrase cost... of illiteracy: for greatest clarity, cost should be followed immediately by a phrase (e.g., of illiteracy) that identifies the nature of the cost. Choice E is particularly garbled in reversing cause and effect, saying that it is lost output and revenues rather than illiteracy that costs the United States over $20 billion a year. Choice B is wordy and awkward, and idiom requires in rather than because of to introduce a phrase identifying the constituents of the$20 billion loss. Concise, logically worded, and idiomatic, choice C is best.

119. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than \$100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business
of
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice B, the best answer, uses clear and concise phrasing to state that it is the effects of drug and alcohol abuse that already cost business the sum mentioned. In A, to business is awkwardly and confusingly inserted between cost and the prepositional phrase that modifies it, and are already a cost to business is wordy and awkward compared to cost business. In C, already with business costs of... is awkward and unclear, failing to specify that those prior effects generate the cost. Choices D and E produce faulty constructions with the phrase significant in compounding, which cannot grammatically modify the verb form is growing.

128. New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of
irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding varieties
.

(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding varieties
(B) requirements by earlier high-yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation
(C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high-yielding varieties
(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high-yielding varieties
(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high-yielding varieties

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice E, the best answer, clearly and grammatically expresses the idea that two costly procedures, irrigation and the application of... fertilizer, were required by earlier high-yielding varieties of rice. In A, the placement of by earlier... varieties immediately after application of fertilizer suggests that the varieties applied the fertilizer. In B and D, the phrase application of... fertilizer and irrigation is ambiguous in meaning: it cannot be clearly determined whether applying fertilizer and irrigating are a single operation or two distinct operations. In C, only irrigation--not both irrigation and fertilization--is clearly associated with the earlier... varieties of rice.

136. Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, it is so debilitating that it has become an economic drain on many developing countries.

(A) it is so debilitating that it has become an economic
(B) it is of such debilitation, it has become an economical
(C) so debilitating is it as to become an economic
(D) such is its debilitation, it becomes an economical
(E) there is so much debilitation that it has become an economical

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice A is best: is links the noun schistosomiasis with its modifier, debilitating, and so debilitating that idiomatically introduces a clause that provides a further explanation of debilitating. Choices B, D, and E produce awkward, wordy, imprecise, or unidiomatic phrases by substituting the noun debilitation for the modifier debilitating. Choices B and D fail to introduce the explanatory clause with that, and C uses an awkward and wordy construction in place of a that... clause. Finally, B, D, and E wrongly use economical instead of economic to mean "pertaining to the economy."

139. The extraordinary diary of William Lyon Mackenzie King, prime minister of Canada for over twenty years, revealed that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic guided in both public and private life by omens, messages received at seances, and signs from heaven.

(A) that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic guided in both public and
(B) that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and also guided both in public as well as
(C) this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and that he was guided in both public and
(D) this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and that he was guided in both public as well as
(E) this most bland and circumspect of men to have been a mystic and that he guided himself both in
public as well as

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice A is best. All of the other choices present errors in coordination or parallelism and also confusingly suggest that King's being a mystic and being guided... by omens... were separate matters. In addition, these choices contain errors in grammar and idiom. Choice B ungrammatically uses and also to link the noun mystic and the past participle guided. In choices C and D, that is required to introduce the clause x was a mystic if that introduces the second clause, he was guided.... In choice E, to have been a mystic and that he guided... are not parallel. Finally, B, D, and E use the unidiomatic both x as well as y instead of both x and y.

153. A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office that even Theodore C. Sorensen, the White House counsel, did not know it existed.

(A) A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office that
(B) So secret was a recording system installation and operation in the Kennedy Oval Office
(C) It was so secret that a recording system was installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office
(D) A recording system that was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office
(E) Installed and operated so secretly in the Kennedy Oval Office was a recording system that

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: A, the best choice, correctly focuses upon the recording system by making it the straightforward subject of the sentence and the logical referent of the pronoun it in the last line. B makes installation and operation the subject, distorting the focus and leaving it without a clear referent. C distorts the focus with an awkward and confusing delayed subject construction. C also omits the conjunction that necessary to introduce the clause stating the result (even Sorenson did not know…). D, a long noun phrase with no finite verb, produces a fragment rather than a complete sentence. E awkwardly inverts the order of the subject and predicate in the main clause and thus cannot be logically connected to the remainder of the sentence.

157. A number of linguists contend that all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world's five billion people can be traced back to a common root language.

(A) that all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world's five billion people can be traced
(B) that the world's five billion people speak thousands of languages of which all can be traced
(C) the world's five billion people speak thousands of languages which are all traceable
(D) all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world's five billion people to be traceable
(E) the ability to trace all of the thousands of languages that are spoken by the world's five billion people

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: A, the best choice, correctly (1) uses a noun clause introduced by that after contend, (2) keeps the "contention" clear by making all of the thousands of languages the subject of the noun clause, and (3) precisely indicates the relationship of the thousands of languages to the common root language (they can be traced back to it). B and C produce convoluted and ill-focused sentences by making the world's five billion people the subject of the noun clause. The phrase of which all in B is unidiomatic (all of which is the idiom). C uses the wordy and indirect traceable back to. D incorrectly substitutes an infinitive clause for the "that" noun clause required after contend. E, in substituting a noun phrase, becomes incoherent and ungrammatical.

171. In 1527 King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn.

(A) so as to marry
(B) and so could be married to
(C) to be married to
(D) so that he could marry
(E) in order that he would marry

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: The sentence calls for an adverbial clause of purpose to explain why Henry sought the annulment. D, the best choice, does this clearly and correctly. It is introduced by an appropriate conjunction, so that, and contains a logically appropriate verb form, could marry. Awkward and imprecise, A does not specify who is to marry Anne. B substitutes an illogical coordinate predicate for the needed purpose clause; because the annulment had not yet been granted. Henry could not remarry. C lacks an appropriate conjunction, and the infinitive clause to be married to... makes this choice awkward and unidiomatic. Although E uses an appropriate conjunction, in order that, the verb form would marry is unidiomatic and illogical (might marry would be better).

183. Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered chalice, which dates from the eighth century, was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders.

(A) to keep from
(B) to keep it from
(C) to avoid
(D) in order that it would avoid
(E) in order to keep from

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: In choice A, the phrase/row being stolen lacks the necessary noun or pronoun that specifies what it is that might be stolen. Choice B is best because it provides the pronoun it, which refers to chalice. Like choice A, choices C and E lack the pronoun. D is wordy and awkward in its use of the passive voice. Moreover, avoid is used imprecisely in C and D because it illogically suggests that the chalice is acting to prevent its own theft.

203. From 1982 to 1987 sales of new small boats increased between five and ten percent annually.

(A) From 1982 to 1987 sales of new small boats increased between five and ten percent annually.
(B) Five to ten percent is the annual increase in sales of new small boats in the years 1982 to 1987.
(C) Sales of new small boats have increased annually five and ten percent in the years 1982 to 1987.
(D) Annually an increase of five to ten percent has occurred between 1982 and 1987 in the sales of new
small boats.
(E) Occurring from 1982 to 1987 was an annual increase of five and ten percent in the sales of new small
boats.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: A, the best choice, conveys the relevant information clearly and directly. Because the focus of interest is the sales of new small boats, that should be the subject of the sentence. Since the period of time covered began and ended in the past, the verb should be in the simple past tense (increased). The adverb annually fits most logically after the amount of the increases. B, C, D, and E all distort the focus and disrupt the sensible order of ideas. In addition, B, C, and D use incorrect verb tenses to refer to the simple past (is, have increased, and has occurred). In C, the expression five and ten percent makes no sense without the word between. Finally, E is especially clumsy and confused.

204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics
and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice E is best; it best indicates purpose for crossbreeding-- partly to acquire. In A, in part that does not grammatically connect the underlined portion to the first part of the sentence (the independent clause). In both A and B, in part is not parallel with and partly in the nonunderlined portion. Choice C causes a misreading, suggesting that the steers' acquisition has caused the crossbreeding. D awkwardly and illogically shifts to the passive voice: certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers; the steers, however, are not agents in the acquisition.

208. Teratomas are unusual forms of cancer because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone not normally found in the organ in which the tumor appears.

(A) because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone
(B) because they are composed of tissues like tooth and bone that are
(C) because they are composed of tissues, like tooth and bone, tissues
(D) in that their composition, tissues such as tooth and bone, is
(E) in that they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone, tissues

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Only E, the best choice, clearly states that teratomas consist of tissues such as tooth and bone, and that such tissues are not normally found in the organ with the teratoma. Clear statement of this fact requires the repetition of tissues to establish the appositive--tissues normally found.... Without such repetition, A and B imprecisely state that the tooth and bone, as opposed to the tissues, are not normally found in the affected organ. Choices B and C alter the meaning with the use of like, that is, they suggest that the tissues are not tooth and bone, but only like them. The confused syntax of D states that their composition, not the tissues, is found in the organ...

220. For almost a hundred years after having its beginning in 1788, England exiled some 160,000 criminals to Australia.

(A) For almost a hundred years after having its beginning in 1788,
(B) Beginning in 1788 for a period of a hundred years,
(C) Beginning a period of almost a hundred years, in 1788
(D) During a hundred years, a period beginning in 1788,
(E) Over a period of a hundred years beginning in 1788,

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Aside from being wordy and awkward, choice A is illogical: because its refers grammatically to England, A states nonsensically that England had its beginning in 1788. Choice B is similarly illogical, because the initial verb phrase Beginning in 1788... modifies England, the subject of the main clause. Choice C is imprecise, saying that England in 1788 was Beginning a period... but not conveying the sense that anything happened within that period. Choice D is awkward and unidiomatic, and nonsensically suggests that a hundred years is defined as a period beginning in 1788. Precise and idiomatically phrased, choice E is best.

221. Eating saltwater fish may significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, according to three research studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

(A) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for
(B) be significant in reducing the risk of heart attacks and aid for
(C) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and aid
(D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of heart attacks and aid to
(E) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks as well as aiding

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choices A, B, and D each produce a clearly unintended meaning: by using aid as a noun rather than a verb, each creates a misleading parallel with the noun risk so that the sentences nonsensically state that eating saltwater fish may reduce aid as well as risk. In addition, B and D are wordy and awkward. Choice C, the best answer, avoids the prepositions/or (from A and B) and to (from D), instead using aid as a verb that is parallel with reduce. Choice E lacks the grammatical parallelism of may reduce... and aid, the compound verb in C.

223. As business grows more complex, students majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and
marketing have been becoming increasingly
successful in the job market.

(A) majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly
(B) who major in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are becoming more and more
(C) who majored in specialized areas such as those of finance and marketing are being increasingly
(D) who major in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming more and
more
(E) having majored in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are being increasingly

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: The phrase As business grows more complex introduces an ongoing condition that is leading to
consequences described in the rest of the sentence. Those consequences should, like the causal condition, be expressed with simple present-tense or present progressive verb forms. Only choice B, the best answer, consistently employs these forms: who major... and... are becoming. In A and D, the use of like rather than such as is incorrect: like makes a comparison; such as introduces examples. In A, C, and D, those of is unnecessary verbiage, and being in C and E is less precise than becoming for describing a pattern of events that is unfolding.

234. The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1 millimeters--is too long to be registered by the eye.

(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1 millimeters--is too long to be
registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation--0.1 millimeters--is top long to be registered by the eye
making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1 millimeters--is too long for the eye
to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to
register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register,
thus making it invisible

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice A, the best answer, is clear, idiomatic, and grammatically correct. In B, the misplaced participial phrase making it invisible modifies eye rather than wavelength, thus producing a confusing statement that distorts the meaning. In C, D, and E the use of the second it is so imprecise as to be confusing. Furthermore, in D, and thus invisible incorrectly modifies wavelength rather than infrared radiation. Choice E produces an illogical statement by using a restrictive clause introduced by that where a comma followed by the nonrestrictive "which" is required: a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long nonsensically suggests that not all wavelengths of 0.1 millimeters are too long for the eye to register.

237. It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

(A) may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
(B) may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
(C) are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
(D) are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
(E) are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice E, the best answer, avoids redundancy by using are rather than may be, employs the idiomatic phrase the interaction of, and expresses the relationship between the stars in a clear, concise way--two stars orbiting each other. In A and B, the use of may be is redundant because the beginning phrase It seems likely that has already established a degree of uncertainty. In A, the phrase the interaction where two stars orbit each other is imprecise and illogical, suggesting that the interaction is a place where the orbiting occurs. In B, the phrase two stars that each orbit the other is both awkward and needlessly wordy. Choice C can be faulted because to form a passive construction, are should take a verb form such as caused rather than an adverb such as because. Also, the phrase two stars that orbit each other illogically suggests that there are two particular stars causing all the phenomena in question, rather than various sets of stars in various locations. In D, the word where has no clear or logical referent, and each is orbiting the other is awkward and unnecessarily wordy; it could be replaced by the clearer and more concise orbiting each other.

240. What brought the automobile company back from the verge of bankruptcy shortly after the Second World War was a special, governmentally sanctioned price increase allowed during a period of wage and price controls.

(A) What brought
(B) The thing that brought
(C) That which brought
(D) Bringing
(E) What has brought

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice A is best. The verb tense is correct and the pronoun what refers most concisely and idiomatically to the noun increase. It may help to imagine a simplified version of the sentence and substitute the other answer choices for "The price increase was what brought..." Both B and C are unnecessarily wordy, and C is awkward and unidiomatic. Both D and E are faulty in tense; Bringing suggests an ongoing condition and is incompatible with an action that was completed shortly after the Second World War. Similarly, has brought indicates action that continues up to the present; the past tense brought is needed to parallel was.

242. Even their most ardent champions concede that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is
necessary
before solar cells can meet the goal of providing one percent of the nation's energy needs.

(A) that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary
(B) that nothing other than a technical or scientific breakthrough is needed
(C) that a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary
(D) the necessity for an occurrence of a technical or scientific breakthrough
(E) the necessity for a technical or scientific breakthrough occurring

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: C is the best choice. The word that functions grammatically to introduce the clause that describes the point that champions of solar cells concede. Choices A and B needlessly lengthen the statement by expressing the idea through negation: no less than and nothing other than could be dropped without loss of meaning. In D and E, the preposition/or is less idiomatic than o/in expressing necessity. Furthermore, both choices present an awkward and wordy noun-plus-prepositional phrase instead of a that clause that would express meaning more exactly and concisely.

249. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style were influential on generations of bluegrass artists. was also an inspiration to many musicians, that included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia. whose music differed significantly from his own.

(A) were influential on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many musicians, that
included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from
(B) influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and
Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from
(C) was influential to generations of bluegrass artists, was also inspirational to many musicians, that
included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music was different significantly in comparison to
(D) was influential to generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, who included Elvis
Presley and Jerry Garcia, the music of whom differed significantly when compared to
(E) were an influence on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many musicians,
including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music was significantly different from that of

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: B, the best choice, is idiomatic, clear, and without agreement errors or redundancy. In A and E, the phrases were influential on and were an influence on are not idiomatic and furthermore could be replaced by the more direct influenced. In A, that included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia improperly modifies many musicians. In E, the construction different from that of his own is confusing since there is no referent for that: different from his own makes a logical comparison. Both C and D begin with the singular was; the compound subject of this verb is plural: repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style. Both choices also may be faulted for wordiness and redundancy in their use of was different significantly in comparison to and differed significantly when compared to. In C, that included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia improperly modifies many musicians. Finally, the music of whom in D is cumbersome and stilted.

256. The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus.

(A) The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius in
two letters to the historian Tacitus.
(B) To the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote two letters, being the only eyewitness
accounts of the great eruption of Vesuvius.
(C) The only eyewitness account is in two letters by the nephew of Pliny the Elder writing to the historian
Tacitus an account of the great eruption of Vesuvius.
(D) Writing the only eyewitness account, Pliny the Elder's nephew accounted for the great eruption of
Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus.
(E) In two letters to the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness
account of the great eruption of Vesuvius.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: E, the best choice, conveys its meaning clearly, without ambiguity, and uses straightforward syntax. In A, the placement of the phrase in two letters to the historian Tacitus generates ambiguity: the nonsensical suggestion is that the eruption of Vesuvius took place in the letters themselves. In B, the verb phrase that begins being the only eyewitness accounts modifies the subject of the preceding clause, suggesting nonsensically that the nephew of Pliny the Elder himself was the eyewitness accounts. Furthermore, To the historian Tacitus, the nephew... wrote two letters is unnecessarily clumsy. In C, the meaning of the sentence is unclear (The only eyewitness account of what?), the repetition of account is clumsy, and the syntax is highly convoluted (... in two letters by the nephew of Pliny the Elder writing to the historian Tacitus an account...). In D, Writing the only eyewitness account, Pliny the Elder's nephew accounted is redundant, and the placement of in two letters to the historian Tacitus generates ambiguity, suggesting under one available reading that the eruption took place in the letters.

258. The British sociologist and activist Barbara Wootton once noted as a humorous example of income
maldistribution that the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo was earning annually
exactly what she then earned as director of adult education for London.

(A) that the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo was earning
(B) that the elephant, giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo, had been earning
(C) that there was an elephant giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo, and it earned
(D) the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo and was earning
(E) the elephant giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo and that it earned

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: Choice A, the best answer, uses the idiomatic construction noted... that and clearly focuses on the salient information-- a comparison of annual earnings. In B, the structure of noted... that the elephant, giving rides ..., had been earning falsely implies that the reader already knows about the elephant--that is, that the existence of this particular elephant is not new information. Also, the past perfect had been improperly places the elephant's earning in the past, prior to Wootton's; consistent verb tense is needed to show that the actions are simultaneous. Choice C may be faulted for distortion of meaning and diminished clarity because it suggests that the point of Wootton's example was the elephant's very existence; comparative earnings are presented (after and) as incidental detail. Choice D is awkward and inexact; the whole circumstance that Wootton "noted" is best expressed in a clause that begins with that. Choice E does not use the idiomatic construction noted that x; therefore, and that it earned has no parallel construction to which it can be joined.

260. According to some economists, the July decrease in unemployment so that it was the lowest in two years suggests that the gradual improvement in the job market is continuing.

(A) so that it was the lowest in two years
(B) so that it was the lowest two-year rate
(C) to what would be the lowest in two years
(D) to a two-year low level
(E) to the lowest level in two years

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OE: E, the best choice, employs idiomatic construction and uses the precise decrease ... to the lowest level. Choices A and B are faulty in construction. The adverbial so that can modify verbs (e.g., decreased) but not nouns (e.g., the decrease). The meaning of lowest two-year rate in B is unclear; in any event the phrase distorts the intended meaning of lowest in two years. In A and B, the referent of it is unclear, as the pronoun could refer to either unemployment or decrease. Choice C improperly uses would be to describe a situation that is presented as a current and known fact. Also, there is no noun for lowest to modify; clearly "the lowest decrease" is not intended. In D, the phrase two-year low level is unidiomatic, as well as unclear in its intended meaning.

Last edited by cano on 23 Sep 2011, 18:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  20 Sep 2011, 02:14
+1 Kudos to you. I wish i could give more. Awesome

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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  20 Sep 2011, 02:44
If anyone has a newer version of Manhattan SC, can PM me with the OG12 questions that deal with Style, I'll chose only the altered intent related, type them and include them in this thread.
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  20 Sep 2011, 03:01
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Thanks Cano for posting all these questions. I appreciate it.

I attempted all of them, I got 23/27, but I want to point something that may be useful to everyone of us-
Personally, I feel "idioms" sometime cause me a problem while selecting the answer choice, for e.g. look at this question-

Q.
Even their most ardent champions concede that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is
necessary
before solar cells can meet the goal of providing one percent of the nation's energy needs.

(A) that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary
(B) that nothing other than a technical or scientific breakthrough is needed
(C) that a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary
(D) the necessity for an occurrence of a technical or scientific breakthrough
(E) the necessity for a technical or scientific breakthrough occurring

Now while solving this problem, I decided.. ok, answer choice should start with "That"...eliminated D and E.
I'm an idiom person, I saw "no less than...." in original sentence and thought between A and C, A is the better option. My reasons were- it uses the correct idiom, it is grammatically correct and it is the original sentence with the precise meaning.

But OG gives an excellent explanation that even after removing the wordy idiom part my sentence is still pretty good in fact better than A.
I'm sure with the new changes we are going to see more of such questions, where we need to cut out the slack(= idiom) while picking the most appropriate meaningful answer.

One other point is even though we start ignoring the idioms we can't do without them while forming the perfect meaningful answer, here is an example-

Q.
An array of tax incentives has led to a boom in the construction of new office buildings; so abundant has capital been for commercial real estate that investors regularly scour the country for areas in which to build.

(A) so abundant has capital been for commercial real estate that
(B) capital has been so abundant for commercial real estate, so that
(C) the abundance of capital for commercial real estate has been such,
(D) such has the abundance of capital been for commercial real estate that
(E) such has been an abundance of capital for commercial real estate,

Choice A is best. The construction so abundant has capital been... that correctly and clearly expresses the relationship between the abundance and the investors' response. In choice B, the repetition of so is illogical and unidiomatic. Choices C, D, and E alter somewhat the intended meaning of the sentence; because of its position in these statements, such functions to mean "of a kind" rather than to intensify abundant. Choice D awkwardly separates has and been, and the omission of that from C and E makes those choices ungrammatical.

B was still eliminated on the basis of incorrect idiom, also A as the correct idiom - so....that...

My point is- we do need to be a little cautious while ignoring the idioms against the most precise meaningful sentence but we need not require to be overcautious while ignoring the idioms because they are still pretty much an integral part of the sentence to derive a meaningful precise answer.
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  20 Sep 2011, 03:41
Hi,
I am confused by qestion 204.
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

The answer given is E. "In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor." but doesnt this sound like the charecteristics are being aquired by the cattle breeders. How can a third person aquire something in you.....please explain.
Thanks
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  20 Sep 2011, 09:07
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Number of questions in OG 12th

Meaning and concision:
8,12,16,17,21,31,37,39,49,57,93,98,135.
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  20 Sep 2011, 19:55
A very good collection.

The questions with only one or two words underlined are the ones which are becoming more common and require a close analysis.

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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  21 Sep 2011, 05:26
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Thanks Pkit for posting the number of questions of the OG12.
I have typed them in the following thread:
13-og12-questions-on-altered-intent-changes-in-meaning-120920.html
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  21 Sep 2011, 05:28
crick20002002 wrote:
A very good collection.

The questions with only one or two words underlined are the ones which are becoming more common and require a close analysis.

Crick

Thanks for the info. Have you taken the GMAT recently? Is there anything else you could tell us about this topic?
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  21 Sep 2011, 05:49
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one more SC from OG 10th with meaning

As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500. or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
(A) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
(B) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult
(C) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult
(D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.
(E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  21 Sep 2011, 06:44
Expert's post
i would to ask you one thing.....the test wil be difficult to crack base on the information that we have at this moment??'
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  22 Sep 2011, 17:37
Needless to say - nice collection.
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  22 Sep 2011, 18:00
NIce collections..Thanks
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  22 Sep 2011, 18:30
cano wrote:
crick20002002 wrote:
Thanks for the info. Have you taken the GMAT recently? Is there anything else you could tell us about this topic?

I didn't write GMAT myself, however some of my friends have and they say they saw a few questions(1-2 questions per person) where only 1-3 words were underlined.

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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  22 Sep 2011, 19:55
Hi this is a good post, however i heard from a friend of mine that some SC questions in recent tests only have one word underlined in a very short sentence

do you have examples of this type of questions?

Further i think in a small sentence the issue in meaning is more likely to be comparison based like missing do or something line an year with an apostrophe. Please comment
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  25 Sep 2011, 00:33
Dear all
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  25 Sep 2011, 04:34
Suzy, the answers are hidden. You have to press the "Reveal" link in order to see the explanations and answers.
Welcome to GMAT Club!
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  25 Sep 2011, 08:15
Thanks. Yes welcome to GMAT club..
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  26 Sep 2011, 02:22
Expert's post
thnx a ton man...i wish i cud give u a million...
great collection
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink]  28 Sep 2011, 06:59
Great Job cano.
Thanks alot. +1.
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Re: 27 OG10 question on altered intent, changes in meaning   [#permalink] 28 Sep 2011, 06:59

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