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Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest

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Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2012, 03:05
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Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest living star in the known universe, a metal-poor star that is a fossil formed in the early history of the universe and endured some 13.2 billion years.

1 endured
2 endures
3 enduring
4 it endured
5 is enduring
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by Zarrolou on 07 May 2013, 06:17, edited 1 time in total.
Added OA
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age... [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2012, 03:05
This place has been taken for the official explanation.

Let's discuss and contribute ideas !!!
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age... [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2012, 03:38
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Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest living star in the known universe, a metal-poor star that isa fossil formed in the early history of the universe and endured some 13.2 billion years.

thus the reduced stem appears to be :

A fossil formed (X)......................AND...................Endured (Y).......... some 13 billion yrs ago.

X & Y = has to be Parallel

vertical scan reveals only 3 to fit the bill :

3. X ( Formed = past participle ) ..................... AND.......................Y ( Enduring = present Participle) = Parallel

Since the star is a living one : Correctly connects Formed ( past Sequence ) & Enduring ( Since living = present Sequence).

Leading to 3 = my take
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age... [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2012, 07:23
Hi skmskm

Can you please explain in detail? How could you strike off the sentence up to "star that is". There is a relative clause starting with "that".
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age... [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2012, 10:26
Hi Buddy,

1. The first part before the comma is nothing but an initial modifier : Striking this off doesn't make any difference in getting to the intent/flavour of the sentence.

2. After the comma : The star THAT is a fossil............ ( some narratives related to the fossil )

Now we are not actually concerned about the star but about the fossil and the description of it ( where the answer is masked ) ; As suggested in the stem the star is nothing but a fossil ............

so striking off till THAT after skimming/ understanding the stem brings you nearer to the masking zone ( without destroying / interfering with the logical flow ) :
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Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest livi [#permalink] New post 07 May 2013, 06:05
Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest living star in the known universe, a metal-poor star that is a fossil formed in the early history of the universe and endured some 13.2 billion years.

A endured
B endures
C enduring
D it endured
E is enduring

Can you please provide detailed explanations! Thanks!
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest livi [#permalink] New post 07 May 2013, 06:15
fozzzy wrote:
Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest living star in the known universe, a metal-poor star that is a fossil formed in the early history of the universe and endured some 13.2 billion years.

A endured
B endures
C enduring
D it endured
E is enduring

Can you please provide detailed explanations! Thanks!


Merging similar topics.

We have to express the idea that this action happened over a long period of time, so only C and E remain.

"the oldest living star", "a star that is a fossil formed (...) and is enduring". "enduring" correctly modifies the fossil, "is" is not necessary and makes the sentence unclear: "a star that is a fossil and (...) is enduring" does it modify "fossil" or "star"? not clear

Hope it's clear
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest [#permalink] New post 07 May 2013, 06:41
Expert's post
Yes. The answer is C; I couldn’t agree more with Zarrolou. We need a modifier that describes the oldest living star in the unverse. This is best done in C by providing a compound modifier using two factors namely, a metal –poor state and a long enduring one. The modifier is going o be a phrase without a verb; we may see, all the choices except C a are having verbs rather verbal.
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest livi [#permalink] New post 07 May 2013, 07:26
Zarrolou wrote:
"the oldest living star", "a star that is a fossil formed (...) and is enduring". "enduring" correctly modifies the fossil, "is" is not necessary and makes the sentence unclear: "a star that is a fossil and (...) is enduring" does it modify "fossil" or "star"? not clear
Hope it's clear


Good analysis. Curious to know what the source is, because it seems to be a rip off of the following OG problem:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

By the way, in the sentence under consideration, "formed" is "past participle", while "enduring" is "present participle". From a structural parallelism perspective, this is completely ok. For example:

Team India, battered by successive defeats, but raring to go, put up a mighty performance.
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest livi [#permalink] New post 07 May 2013, 20:12
The source of the question is Grockit...
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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest [#permalink] New post 19 Nov 2013, 20:16
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here is the official explanation from Grockit.

Answer C - The subject matter of this sentence is enough to confuse some people, but the grammar isn’t that bad when we simplify the sentence to what we need here. Since we’ve just got one word underlined, we must be looking for its proper form. We can mentally edit what matters in the sentence to: “Astronomers have... deduced the age of... a [living] fossil... formed... and... -----.”

Now that the sentence is simplified, it should be easier to notice that everything after the word “fossil” merely describes that fossil (the oldest living star). And if it describes, then it’s not used as a verb... it’s used as a participle. A little logic can help us next: if the star is a living star, then has it stopped enduring? Of course not! So we should keep the tense active, and we should use the participle form parallel to “formed.”

Here’s how to think it through: “a fossil [that] [was] formed... and [is] enduring.” The word “that” wasn’t used after “fossil,” so the word “was” was properly excluded, too. And since “was” wasn’t used, then “is” shouldn’t be, either... especially since they're both being used as participles (to describe fossils-- they're not meant as verbs).

A. The star is still enduring, so the past tense “endured” is the wrong verb tense.
B. “Endures” is the wrong word. It’s the present-tense verb, not the present tense participle.
C. This is the credited response. “Enduring” is the correct present participle, parallel to “formed.”
D. “It endured” is not only the wrong form, but it is also the wrong tense: the star is still alive.
E. Although tempting, “is enduring” is the wrong form; it is the progressive verb, not the present participle. Since “[that] was” was excluded, “is” can’t be included, either.

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Re: Astronomers have recently deduced the age of the oldest   [#permalink] 19 Nov 2013, 20:16
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