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At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a

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At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a [#permalink] New post 01 Feb 2011, 00:42
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C
D
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64% (02:10) correct 36% (01:13) wrong based on 28 sessions
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip
1) Including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
2) Which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales of
3) Included among these the treat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
4) Among them the treat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
5) Among these the treat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 01 Feb 2011, 01:13
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There is a short cut to cross this long passage. ‘Sales for’ is bad idiom, and so skip 1, 3 and 5. ‘Sales of’ is good idiom. Between 2 and 4, choice 2 no doubt sticks to the relative pronoun touch rule – ‘which’ touches and means ‘company’ - but sadly flouts logical predication by not referring to ‘challenges’ and hence dump it. Merrily tread along 4.
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 03 Feb 2011, 12:40
Yeah D. The correct idioms are 'threat of' and 'sale of'. B suffers from little bit of Parallelism problem; the referent of 'which' is ambiguous.
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 03 Feb 2011, 15:53
Please underline the part.

was tempted to choose B, then realized that 'which' doesn't modify the whole clause....

IMO D...
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2011, 07:25
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It may also be helpful to note that, in general, the test-writers don't like indicative pronouns (these, those, this, that, etc) that float free without attached nouns.

For example...

I'm not sure how I feel about that rule. (Correct)
I'm not sure how I feel about that. (Incorrect)


That knocks off C and E.

Two of the choices that are left-- A and D, include object pronouns ("them") while B contains no pronoun at all. It might be temping to nix all pronouns, but as daagh mentioned above, ", which" must touch the noun it is modifying, and in choice C it is touching "company"--eliminate B.

But, you may ask, what about the fact that there are *several* plural nouns earlier in the sentence ("stockholders, "investors," and "challenges")? Doesn't that mean the pronoun is ambiguous?

Unfortunately, no. A degree of pronoun ambiguity can be tolerated if it is grammatically clear from the sentence which of the possible antecedents is intended (notice, this is different from being clear because "I can tell what they probably meant from the content")--grammatically clear means clear from the *structure*)

(1) "stockholders" modifies "meeting" and is not a standalone noun-- out
(2) "investors" is the subject of the clause ("INVESTORS HEARD"), but we want an object noun (because we have THEM), not a subject noun. If our pronoun was "they" we would be referring to "investors"--out
(3) "challenges" is the object of the preposition ("presentation ON THE NUMEROUS CHALLENGES") -- here's our guy!

One last clue-- parallelism is very powerful on the GMAT, and the structure in D is nicely parallel:

(D) ...among them the THREAT OF....and the DECLINE OF... (yay)

...whereas in A we have

(S)...among them the THREAT FROM...and THE DECLINING SALES OF (less yay)

That's more ammo for (D) being the correct response.
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2011, 13:52
a ) redundant (including...among)
b) which must touch the noun it is modifying, ain't happening here.
c) same as A
e) sales "for" isn't correct, also "as well as" definitely not required. A concise sentence is preferred.

D is the best
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2011, 13:57
parker, love your explanation...please could you help me understand what is an object pronoun?
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 08 Mar 2011, 14:58
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Yup--sorry it's taken me so long to reply (out of the country on vacation).

A SUBJECT pronoun is a pronoun that takes the place of a noun in the subject position--in other words, the noun that is PERFORMING the action.

SUBJECT PRONOUNS-- I, you, he, she, it, they

The cat jumped over my dad.
SHE jumped over my dad.

The boy threw the ball.
HE threw the ball.

Those people like Jeanine a lot.
THEY like Jeanine a lot.

OBJECT pronouns take the place of nouns in the object position-- nouns that are RECEIVING the action. If you see a preposition before a noun, that noun must be an object (that doesn't mean there *must* be a preposition, however--see the second and third examples below).

OBJECT pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, them

The cat jumped over my dad.
The cat jumped over him.

The boy threw the ball.
The boy threw it.

Those people like Jeanine a lot.
Those people like her a lot.


"you" and "it" are the same for both families of pronouns, but things can get more confusing for the others. If you're not sure which case (object or subject) you should use, you can try swapping in another one from that family to check.

For example, if you wanted to test the correctness of the following sentence--
"Between you and I, that puppy is awfully mopey." (?)

You could "swap in" another member of the same family..."I" is a subject pronoun, so you should be able to subsitute another subject pronoun...

Which is correct?
"Between you and THEY, that puppy is awfully mopey."
OR
"Between you and THEM, that puppy is awfully mopey."

The second example, which uses the OBJECT case pronoun, is correct, so we actually want to say--
"Between you and ME, that puppy is awfully mopey" (CORRECT)
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 08 Mar 2011, 17:56
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I got A and D. A violates ||ism. Hence it should be D

But please shed light on the structure i.e. the form after the comma.
4) Among them the treat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of -- this modifies just "challenges".

This is not "ing" modifier. What kind of modifier is this?

parker wrote:
That knocks off C and E.

Two of the choices that are left-- A and D, include object pronouns ("them") while B contains no pronoun at all. It might be temping to nix all pronouns, but as daagh mentioned above, ", which" must touch the noun it is modifying, and in choice C it is touching "company"--eliminate B.

Last edited by gmat1220 on 09 Mar 2011, 01:49, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 09 Mar 2011, 01:20
sales for is wrong usage so A C E are out
numerous challenges is plural subject, so which includeS - is wrong verb
D eliminated
Answer B
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 12 Mar 2011, 15:38
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gmat 1220, I believe this phrase is just a long noun modifier (if there's a fancy grammar guru out there who knows a specialized name for it feel free to hop in!). It describes the type of challenges. The basic structure is:

Investors heard a presentation about CHALLENGES (AMONG THEM the threat and the decline).
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2011, 22:57
The answer is D, I too shortened by eliminating these, and "including among". Great explanations everyone :)
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Re: Pronouns, Idioms. GMAT PREP   [#permalink] 14 Apr 2011, 22:57
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