Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20 years after the Second World War is the country's impressive population growth. For every three Canadians in 1945, there were over five in 1966. In September 1966 Canada's population passed the 20 million mark. Most of this surging growth came from natural increase. The depression of the 1930's and the war had held back marriages, and the catching-up process began after 1945. The baby boom continued through the decade of the1950's, producing a population increase of nearly fifteen percent in the five years from 1951 to 1956. This rate of increase had been exceeded only once before in Canada's history, in the decade before 1911. when the prairies were being settled. Undoubtedly, the good economic conditions of the 1950's supported a growth in the population, but the expansion also derived from a trend toward earlier marriages and an increase in the average size of families. In 1957 the Canadian birth rate stood at 28 per thousand, one of the highest in the world.
After the peak year of 1957, the birth rate in Canada began to decline. It continued falling until in 1966 it stood at the lowest level in 25 years. Partly this decline reflected the low level of births during the depression and the war, but it was also caused by changes in Canadian society. Young people were staying at school longer; more women were working; young married couples were buying automobiles or houses before starting families; rising living standards were cutting down the size of families. It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.
Although the growth in Canada's population had slowed down by 1966 (the increase in the first half of the 1960's was only nine percent), another large population wave was coming over the horizon. It would be composed of the children who were born during the period of the high birth rate prior to 1957.
10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Educational changes in Canadian society
(B) Canada during the Second World War
(C) Population trends in postwar Canada
(D) Standards of living in Canada
11. According to the passage, when did Canada's baby boom begin?
(A) In the decade after 1911
(B) After 1945
(C) During the depression of the 1930's
(D) In 1966
12. The word "five" in line 3 refers to
13. The word "surging" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
14. The author suggests that in Canada during the1950's
(A) the urban population decreased rapidly
(B) fewer people married
(C) economic conditions were poor
(D) the birth rate was very high
15. The word "trend" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
16. The word "peak" in line 14 is closest in meaning to
17. When was the birth rate in Canada at its lowest postwar level?
18. The author mentions all of the following as causes of declines in population growth after 1957 EXCEPT
(A) people being better educated
(B) people getting married earlier
(C) better standards of living
(D) couples buying houses
19. It can be inferred from the passage that before the Industrial Revolution
(A) families were larger
(B) population statistics were unreliable
(C) the population grew steadily
(D) economic conditions were bad
20. The word "It" in line 25 refers to
(B) population wave
(C) nine percent
(D) first half
21. The phrase "prior to" in line 26 is closest in meaning to