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Because of Elnath Industries posting a second consecutive

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Because of Elnath Industries posting a second consecutive [#permalink] New post 04 Dec 2012, 11:49
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86% (01:24) correct 14% (00:31) wrong based on 97 sessions
Because of Elnath Industries posting a second consecutive quarter of losses, its stocks tumbled 20% in the last three days.
(A) Because of Elnath Industries posting
(B) Because of Elnath Industries having posted
(C) Because Elnath Industries posting
(D) Because Elnath Industries posted
(E) Because Elnath Industries had been posting


For a full discussion of "because" vs. "because of", as well as an analysis of this question, see this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-idiom ... ecause-of/
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Because vs. Because of [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2012, 11:20
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rajathpanta wrote:
a happened because b happened is the right usage here.
because of usage is slightly different say, the match is cancelled because of rain.
Because is a conjunction and connects two clauses.
Because of has a preposition 'of' which should be followed by a noun or a phrase.
Is this correct?

That's 100% correct.

Because of is a preposition, which means
(1) is it followed by a noun (or by something taking the role of a noun --- e.g. a gerund)
(2) outside of the prepositional phrase, the sentence needs a main clause --- a prepositional phrase can be no more than a modifier
The preposition "because of" followed by an ordinary noun:
He is upset because of the stock market.
The preposition "because of" followed by a gerund phrase:
He is upset because of losing the game.
The preposition "because of" followed by a substantive clause:
He is upset because of whatever she said on the phone.
More on gerunds: http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... d-phrases/
More on substantive clauses: http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/substantiv ... -the-gmat/

Because is a subordinate conjunction, which means
(1) it must be followed by a full clause with a bonafide [noun] + [verb] structure --- with "because", these form a subordinate clause
(2) outside of the subordinate clause, you need an independent main clause for the sentence overall.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Because vs. Because of [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2012, 01:50
a happened because b happened is the right usage here.
because of usage is slightly different say, the match is cancelled because of rain.
Because is a conjunction and connects two clauses.
Because of has a preposition 'of' which should be followed by a noun on a phrase.
Is this correct?
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Re: Because of Elnath Industries posting a second consecutive [#permalink] New post 26 Jan 2013, 11:48
Expert's post
Choice D is correct.

A) Because of should be followed by noun or noun phrase and not the clause as did in this case.

B) Changes the intended meaning and implies Stock tumbled because of elnath industries and not because its losses.

C) Ungrammatical tense shift because x doing y, z happened.

D) Correct and concise construction. Because x did y, z happened.

E) Use of past perfect continuous had been posting in place of simple past posted creates concision issue. Because the sentence doesn't seem to emphasize the ongoing nature of action and it rather expresses the cause of a another past action, this can be done in simple past very well.

Dear Mike Sir,
please let me know if my analysis is wrong somewhere.

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Expert Post
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
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Re: Because of Elnath Industries posting a second consecutive [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2013, 10:55
Expert's post
NarentheIndian wrote:
Choice D is correct.
A) Because of should be followed by noun or noun phrase and not the clause as did in this case.
B) Changes the intended meaning and implies Stock tumbled because of elnath industries and not because its losses.
C) Ungrammatical tense shift because x doing y, z happened.
D) Correct and concise construction. Because x did y, z happened.
E) Use of past perfect continuous had been posting in place of simple past posted creates concision issue. Because the sentence doesn't seem to emphasize the ongoing nature of action and it rather expresses the cause of a another past action, this can be done in simple past very well.

Dear Mike Sir,
please let me know if my analysis is wrong somewhere.

Dear NarentheIndian,
I would just add ---- in both (B) & (C), in addition to the problems you cited, we have the construction:
[preposition][noun][participial phrase]
The GMAT does not like this construction. Essentially, we are trying to cram the complete action of a clause into the confines of a prepositional phrase. If you want to talk about a full action, use a subordinate conjunction (such as "because"), which can accommodate a full [noun]+[verb] clause.

Does that make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Because of Elnath Industries posting a second consecutive [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2013, 21:37
mikemcgarry wrote:
NarentheIndian wrote:
Choice D is correct.
A) Because of should be followed by noun or noun phrase and not the clause as did in this case.
B) Changes the intended meaning and implies Stock tumbled because of elnath industries and not because its losses.
C) Ungrammatical tense shift because x doing y, z happened.
D) Correct and concise construction. Because x did y, z happened.
E) Use of past perfect continuous had been posting in place of simple past posted creates concision issue. Because the sentence doesn't seem to emphasize the ongoing nature of action and it rather expresses the cause of a another past action, this can be done in simple past very well.

Dear Mike Sir,
please let me know if my analysis is wrong somewhere.

Dear NarentheIndian,
I would just add ---- in both (B) & (C), in addition to the problems you cited, we have the construction:
[preposition][noun][participial phrase]
The GMAT does not like this construction. Essentially, we are trying to cram the complete action of a clause into the confines of a prepositional phrase. If you want to talk about a full action, use a subordinate conjunction (such as "because"), which can accommodate a full [noun]+[verb] clause.

Does that make sense?
Mike :-)



Can we have a simpler approach to this?

I picked D, because it's the only option which completes the entire sentence in simple past tense...
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Re: Because of Elnath Industries posting a second consecutive [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2013, 10:36
Expert's post
rohitgupta86 wrote:
Can we have a simpler approach to this?
I picked D, because it's the only option which completes the entire sentence in simple past tense...

Dear rohitgupta86,
It sounds as if you have a good "ear" for grammar, and here, trusting your sense for verb tense is enough to get to the answer to this question. I would caution you, though, the issues at play in this question are important to understand, because there will be other SC questions in which you "ear" is not enough, and you will need to think through and analyze some of these other points. Yes, this question itself is a relatively simple question, but don't downplay what you could learn from it and how that might wind up helping you on a considerably more difficult SC question.

Does that make sense?

Mike :-)
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Re: Because of Elnath Industries posting a second consecutive   [#permalink] 29 Jan 2013, 10:36
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