181. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid
innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms' survival
*****Spoiler - OG Explanation below*******
The subject of the main clause (such firms) presumes a prior reference to the firms in question. Furthermore,
the logical subject of to survive and the logical complement of required should be made explicit. All three
demands are met by B, the best choice. Choices A, C, and D, with no reference to the firms in question, meet
none of these demands. In choice E, the illogical and awkward use of a prepositional phrase (for firms' survival)
buries the needed initial reference to firms in a possessive modifier.
In the dependent clause, beginning with because, we know that we need a subject , but is embedding the subject in a prep phrase beginning with "of" correct? of firms to survive : firms is the object of the preposition "of" ; hence can the subject of the main clause (in this case such firms) have a referent embedded in a prep phrase in a dependent clause?
On the other hand it seems the verb in the dependent clause is in the passive voice and hence the subject should be introduced by a "by"