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Because of the enormous research and development

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Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink] New post 07 Jun 2011, 05:24
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Question Stats:

30% (01:30) correct 70% (00:32) wrong based on 20 sessions
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Need a little help with this one [#permalink] New post 16 Jun 2011, 12:06
Can someone explain why A doesn't work?

Thanks.
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Re: Need a little help with this one [#permalink] New post 16 Jun 2011, 20:25
imerial wrote:
Can someone explain why A doesn't work?

Thanks.


Here we want to describe something that has happened in the past and will continue into the future - C does this...whereas in A "to survive" is not an action that will continue into the future.

HTHs.
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Re: Need a little help with this one [#permalink] New post 17 Jun 2011, 03:55
idan1984 wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival



'To be' infinitive should be used when some one order or mandate. E.g. You are required to be present for tomorrow's class.
In above example, A is wrong since no body mandating the firm to survive in the elctronics industry. Hence wrong.
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Re: Need a little help with this one [#permalink] New post 17 Jun 2011, 07:26
is it not required to mention "firm" in the first part of the sentence to make clear whose survival are we talking about? i thought it should be E
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Re: Need a little help with this one [#permalink] New post 17 Jun 2011, 07:29
I got it. That's tricky.

"enormous research and development expenditures" are the object of the sentence, not the subject, so they wouldn't be referred to with the infinitive.

BTW, according to this thread, sc-because-of-the-enormous-research-and-development-68880.html and required-to-survive-or-required-for-survival-49384.html#p347222 the answer's B, not C.

And ganjupatel, it can't be E because then "such firms" would refer to "firm's survival" which makes no sense.
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Re: Need a little help with this one [#permalink] New post 17 Jun 2011, 10:25
IMO C

if you're referring to 'such' firms, then there should be a mention of firms earlier..
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Re: Need a little help with this one [#permalink] New post 17 Jun 2011, 11:03
But that's why it can't be C. Only B and E introduce 'firms', giving such something to refer to. C just changes the infinitive to a prepositional phrase.
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Re: Need a little help with this one [#permalink] New post 22 Jun 2011, 16:43
Excellent question this!

BUT THE OA IS WRONG!

So easy to fall for the trap answer -- A!...the key is the word "such firms"....So B is the correct response..

There is also an incorrect explanation in this thread about the use of the present participle (ing form) vs. the use of the infinitive.
Re: Need a little help with this one   [#permalink] 22 Jun 2011, 16:43
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