Because of the enormous research and development : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Because of the enormous research and development

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Director
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Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2006, 21:18
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Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firmsâ€™ survival
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VP
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16 Jun 2006, 22:29
Yes B is right.
We need to mention firms in the underlined part.
Out of B and D, 'required of firm's ' is correct.
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16 Jun 2006, 23:09
yup, it's B, also for the idiomatic " require of sth to"
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16 Jun 2006, 23:40
R&D expenditures of what???

"to survive" is correct idiom.
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16 Jun 2006, 23:49
Yup B. we need to mention 'firms' over there to make sense of the 'such' later in the sentence. Otherwise there is nothing relating 'such firms' to the electronics industry.
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17 Jun 2006, 00:01
Quoting OG OE:
The subject of the main clause (such firms) presumes a prior reference to the firms in question. Furthermore, the logical subject of to survive and the logical complement of required should be made explicit. All three
demands are met by B, the best choice. Choices A, C, and D, with no reference to the firms in question, meet none of these demands. In choice E, the illogical and awkward use of a prepositional phrase (for firms' survival)
buries the needed initial reference to firms in a possessive modifier.
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17 Jun 2006, 07:25
Learn wrote:
Quoting OG OE:
The subject of the main clause (such firms) presumes a prior reference to the firms in question. Furthermore, the logical subject of to survive and the logical complement of required should be made explicit. All three
demands are met by B, the best choice. Choices A, C, and D, with no reference to the firms in question, meet none of these demands. In choice E, the illogical and awkward use of a prepositional phrase (for firms' survival)
buries the needed initial reference to firms in a possessive modifier.

Yes, (B) clarifies who/what does the research to survice.
17 Jun 2006, 07:25
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