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# Because of the enormous research and development

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Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  14 Aug 2008, 21:45
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Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: SC Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  14 Aug 2008, 23:41
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ssandeepan wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival

The last part of the sentence uses "such firms" which will need an antecedent in the earlier sentence.

So A,C, D are out.

"firms' survival" is possesive and "such firms" can't refer back to it.

Thus B
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Re: SC Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  19 Aug 2008, 03:41
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ssandeepan wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival

B

The last part of the sentence says "such firms." This means the concept of firms must be introduced in the first clause. That leaves B and E. E is wrong because the introduction cannot be a possessive.
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Re: SC Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  19 Aug 2008, 11:17
Correct idiom: require A to B. In that case, require firms to survive. Because of "such firms" i chose B.
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Re: SC Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  19 Aug 2008, 11:23
ssandeepan wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival

"such firms" is in non-underline sentence. So Already we are talking about some firm..

B is good.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  30 Dec 2012, 12:52
A – last part of the sentence refers to a firms. We need to find a sentence where “firms” is clearly stated. Eliminate
B – Keep
C – No reference to firms. Eliminate
D – same as C
E – "firms' survival" is possesive and "such firms" can't refer back to it.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  02 Feb 2013, 07:22
ssandeepan wrote:

Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival

"such firms" just appeared magically in the non-underlined part of the sentence... Thus, we must have this mentioned in the underlined part.
Eliminate (A), (C) and (D)
"firm's survival" cannot be used to refer to firms - Eliminate (E)

"required to survive" is the CORRECT idiom.. But we just have to qualify that this is requirement for firms.

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  04 Feb 2013, 14:17
such noun
can not refer to
possesive noun

that point is the thing we learn from this problem
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  07 Feb 2013, 00:04
As far as i know, the correct idiom structure is "require + noun + to", but still i am not able to understand how option B is correct answer.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  07 Feb 2013, 11:52
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fameatop wrote:
As far as i know, the correct idiom structure is "require + noun + to", but still i am not able to understand how option B is correct answer.

Dear Fame,
The correct idiom for the active use of the verb is -----require + [noun] + [infinitive] ----
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
This sentence is NOT using the verb "to require" in its active form. Instead, it is using the past participle form, "required", as a participle modifying the noun phrase "enormous research and development expenditures." The rules for the past participle follow the rules for the passive use of the verb. For many verb, the subject in the active form would become the object of the preposition "by" in the passive form ----
I read the book. ----> The book was read by me.
Idiomatically, the preposition "by" sounds unnatural with the passive verb "required" in this particular construction. Because the former subject, here "firms", is now essentially the subject of an infinitive phrase, it must take the preposition "for" --- the preposition "for" is the preposition we use to denote the subject of an infinitive or infinitive phrase.
I want for the teacher to help you.
For a homerun hitter to hit over .300 is a notable achievement.
The lawyer argued that it was not a crime for a policemen to use deadly force in an ambiguous situation
.
When we change the active form above to passive form, the former direct object, "enormous research and development expenditures" becomes the subject (that always happens in a change from active to passive), and because we still have an infinitive phrase, the former subject, "firms", becomes the object of the preposition "for", becoming the subject of that infinitive phrase:
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
PASSIVE FORM: Enormous research and development expenditures are required for firms to survive.
Now, we are ready to consider the sentence in this question. The past participle, "required", follows the rules & structures of the passive form of the verb "are required."
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required for firms to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
That's (B), the OA version of the sentence.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  23 Mar 2013, 12:38
mikemcgarry wrote:
fameatop wrote:
As far as i know, the correct idiom structure is "require + noun + to", but still i am not able to understand how option B is correct answer.

Dear Fame,
The correct idiom for the active use of the verb is -----require + [noun] + [infinitive] ----
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
This sentence is NOT using the verb "to require" in its active form. Instead, it is using the past participle form, "required", as a participle modifying the noun phrase "enormous research and development expenditures." The rules for the past participle follow the rules for the passive use of the verb. For many verb, the subject in the active form would become the object of the preposition "by" in the passive form ----
I read the book. ----> The book was read by me.
Idiomatically, the preposition "by" sounds unnatural with the passive verb "required" in this particular construction. Because the former subject, here "firms", is now essentially the subject of an infinitive phrase, it must take the preposition "for" --- the preposition "for" is the preposition we use to denote the subject of an infinitive or infinitive phrase.
I want for the teacher to help you.
For a homerun hitter to hit over .300 is a notable achievement.
The lawyer argued that it was not a crime for a policemen to use deadly force in an ambiguous situation
.
When we change the active form above to passive form, the former direct object, "enormous research and development expenditures" becomes the subject (that always happens in a change from active to passive), and because we still have an infinitive phrase, the former subject, "firms", becomes the object of the preposition "for", becoming the subject of that infinitive phrase:
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
PASSIVE FORM: Enormous research and development expenditures are required for firms to survive.
Now, we are ready to consider the sentence in this question. The past participle, "required", follows the rules & structures of the passive form of the verb "are required."
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required for firms to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
That's (B), the OA version of the sentence.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Hi Mike,
Thanks for such a detailed explanation.

However, the correct answer B says "of firms to survive" rather than "for firms to survive". Please let me know if its just a typo.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  25 Mar 2013, 12:30
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gmatpart2 wrote:
Hi Mike,
Thanks for such a detailed explanation. However, the correct answer B says "of firms to survive" rather than "for firms to survive". Please let me know if its just a typo.

Dear gmatpart2,

This is a tricky point of idiom. Both "require for" and "require of" are correct idioms. The preposition "for" is used when we are discussing an object/tool/implement/ability, something needed to accomplish a task. The object of "for" is the task.
= He requires a calculator for any computations beyond single digit.
= MLB players require excellent vision for hitting pitches.
The preposition "of" is used when we are discussing individuals upon whom demands are placed.
= I require daily studying of my students.
= The Treaty of Versailles (1919) required of Germany the most draconian conditions.
Here, both idioms are relevant.
Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  25 Mar 2013, 22:45
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Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

We have "such firms" in last clause , therefore there must be some discussion about "firms" in previous clause.

so A, C and D are out.
Now left with B and E

(B) of firms to survive- ---- referring to firms
(E) for firms’ survival ------ refering to survival not firms ---- WRONG

So B
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  26 Mar 2013, 00:08
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Agree with aquarius24 explanation....answer should be B
aquarius24 wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

We have "such firms" in last clause , therefore there must be some discussion about "firms" in previous clause.

so A, C and D are out.
Now left with B and E

(B) of firms to survive- ---- referring to firms
(E) for firms’ survival ------ refering to survival not firms ---- WRONG

So B
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  02 Oct 2013, 12:48
mikemcgarry wrote:
fameatop wrote:
As far as i know, the correct idiom structure is "require + noun + to", but still i am not able to understand how option B is correct answer.

Dear Fame,
The correct idiom for the active use of the verb is -----require + [noun] + [infinitive] ----
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
This sentence is NOT using the verb "to require" in its active form. Instead, it is using the past participle form, "required", as a participle modifying the noun phrase "enormous research and development expenditures." The rules for the past participle follow the rules for the passive use of the verb. For many verb, the subject in the active form would become the object of the preposition "by" in the passive form ----
I read the book. ----> The book was read by me.
Idiomatically, the preposition "by" sounds unnatural with the passive verb "required" in this particular construction. Because the former subject, here "firms", is now essentially the subject of an infinitive phrase, it must take the preposition "for" --- the preposition "for" is the preposition we use to denote the subject of an infinitive or infinitive phrase.
I want for the teacher to help you.
For a homerun hitter to hit over .300 is a notable achievement.
The lawyer argued that it was not a crime for a policemen to use deadly force in an ambiguous situation
.
When we change the active form above to passive form, the former direct object, "enormous research and development expenditures" becomes the subject (that always happens in a change from active to passive), and because we still have an infinitive phrase, the former subject, "firms", becomes the object of the preposition "for", becoming the subject of that infinitive phrase:
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
PASSIVE FORM: Enormous research and development expenditures are required for firms to survive.
Now, we are ready to consider the sentence in this question. The past participle, "required", follows the rules & structures of the passive form of the verb "are required."
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required for firms to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
That's (B), the OA version of the sentence.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Hi Mike,

in the following :

Despite protests from some waste-disposal companies, state health officials have ordered the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be published.

(A) the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be
(B) that seawater at popular beaches should be measured for their levels of bacteria, with the results being
(C) the measure of levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches and the results to be
(D) seawater measured at popular beaches for levels of bacteria, with their results
(E) that the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches be measured and the results

ordered is in participle for still we follow the subjunctive rule ... I know it has to do something with "order" being a command subjunctive and "require" is just a punk which can be anything, take "that" after it, take "to+verb" after it and in the quoted explanation of yours I got to know it dont need these too, it can be a participle and can get rid of TOs and THATs

show me light mike ...
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  02 Oct 2013, 16:16
Expert's post
stunn3r wrote:
Hi Mike,

in the following :

Despite protests from some waste-disposal companies, state health officials have ordered the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be published.

(A) the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be
(B) that seawater at popular beaches should be measured for their levels of bacteria, with the results being
(C) the measure of levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches and the results to be
(D) seawater measured at popular beaches for levels of bacteria, with their results
(E) that the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches be measured and the results

ordered is in participle for still we follow the subjunctive rule ... I know it has to do something with "order" being a command subjunctive and "require" is just a punk which can be anything, take "that" after it, take "to+verb" after it and in the quoted explanation of yours I got to know it dont need these too, it can be a participle and can get rid of TOs and THATs

show me light mike ...

Dear stunn3r,
I would like to help, but to some extent I am having trouble following your question.

In the quoted SC problem, in which OA = (E), "ordered" is not a participle. No, "have ordered" is a full-fledged verb --- in fact, it's the main verb of the whole sentence! If we put the verb in its present participle form, "ordering", then the present participle is active, so this could still take a "that"-clause with a subjunctive.
The senator ordering that the teenagers be charged with a felony will be censured by his peers..
The past participle, "ordered", is passive, so it would modify an order or command, not the person giving it, and thus we couldn't fit a "that"-clause into that structure.
The moratorium on judicial appointments, ordered by the Supreme Court, is likely to extend through the summer.
If we used "ordering" as an gerund, it would take the same structure
In ordering that the banks remain closed, the governor drew the ire of the populace.
As a general rule, any verb keeps all its associated idioms in all of its forms --- not only all tenses, but all verbals (infinitives, participles, gerunds). Many times, the same idiom remains even when we change from the verb form to the noun or adjective form of the same root word
A differs from B.
A, different from B, ...

The verb "require" can take a couple different idioms, but let us not cast aspersions on it. This variety is precisely what allows for creative expression in a variety of forms. Creative expression is one of the many ways in which you can impress others with your intelligence through writing. That's a good thing!! The verb "require" keeps its idioms in its various forms.
The judge required the striking workers to return to work.
The judge required that the striking workers return to work.
The striking workers were required to return to work.
The judge requiring that the striking workers return to work was passed over for appointment to a Federal Court.
In requiring that the striking workers return to work, the judge alienated the unions.
In requiring the striking workers to return to work, the judge alienated the unions.
To require that striking workers return to work is not within the powers of a county judge.
To require striking workers to return to work is not within the powers of a county judge.
(slightly awkward, only because of all the to's)
A return to their jobs, required of the workers in court, financially helped the individual workers but broke the spirit of the union.
All of these are correct sentences.

Mike
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  02 Oct 2013, 22:38
mikemcgarry wrote:

Mike

too much .. too much new discoveries and i've my exam on 8th .. That did gave a knot in my head but I'll get to it .. need to read your reply 2-3 times .. These exceptions are killing me, every prep question I do is an exception to some rule, all the answers with "being" are correct .. being is supposed to me wrong 90% of the time but NO, I can just hope that I get questions on exceptions I learned ..

Thanks man ..
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  03 Oct 2013, 09:05
Expert's post
stunn3r wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:

Mike

too much .. too much new discoveries and i've my exam on 8th .. That did gave a knot in my head but I'll get to it .. need to read your reply 2-3 times .. These exceptions are killing me, every prep question I do is an exception to some rule, all the answers with "being" are correct .. being is supposed to me wrong 90% of the time but NO, I can just hope that I get questions on exceptions I learned ..

Thanks man ..

Dear stunn3r,
I'm glad I could help. I wanted to point out --- you said, "too much new discoveries", but as you may know, "discoveries" are countable, so we would use "many", not "much." This is one set of rules for which there are really no exceptions --- it's one of the more purely mathematical rules of grammar. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... -vs-fewer/
Countable nouns come in individual units --- you can have one, or two, or three, or etc. Cars, houses, books, sales, horses, discoveries, stars, baseball games, holidays, nations, trees, ideas ---- all these are countable nouns. If the noun can be singular or plural, that's a good hint that it's countable. For countable nouns, we use "many", "how many", "number", "more", and "fewer".
Uncountable nouns are those things that come in contiguously undifferentiated masses, in bulk, without discernible pieces or parts. Time, space, air, water, meat, distance, weight, knowledge, truth, justice, freedom --- these are uncountable nouns. If the noun is always singular, no matter how much there is, that's a good indication that it's uncountable. For countable nouns, we use "much", "how much", "amount", "more", and "less".
He has many books. He has much knowledge.
How many books does he have? How much knowledge does he have?
He bought a large number of books. He gained a large amount of knowledge.
He has more books than I do. He has more knowledge than I do.
I have fewer books than he does. I have less knowledge than he does.

I will caution you --- while these countable/uncountable rules are very precise with essentially no exception, most grammar rules are not like this. Grammar is not mathematics --- clean and rigid and precise. Grammar reflects the oddities of living language.

I realize that your test is very soon, and I sincerely wish you all the best. If you do well, that's fantastic! If you don't do well, and want to take the GMAT a second time, then I am going to recommend that you READ --- read challenging English an hour a day, above and beyond any GMAT prep you are doing. Here's a blog about what to read:
You don't master grammar by memorizing rules. You master grammar by seeing it in context, and you only see this if you read regularly.

Let me know if you have any further questions in the next few days.
Mike
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  03 Oct 2013, 15:26
mikemcgarry wrote:
stunn3r wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:

Mike

too much .. too much new discoveries and i've my exam on 8th .. That did gave a knot in my head but I'll get to it .. need to read your reply 2-3 times .. These exceptions are killing me, every prep question I do is an exception to some rule, all the answers with "being" are correct .. being is supposed to me wrong 90% of the time but NO, I can just hope that I get questions on exceptions I learned ..

Thanks man ..

Dear stunn3r,
I'm glad I could help. I wanted to point out --- you said, "too much new discoveries", but as you may know, "discoveries" are countable, so we would use "many", not "much." This is one set of rules for which there are really no exceptions --- it's one of the more purely mathematical rules of grammar. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... -vs-fewer/
Countable nouns come in individual units --- you can have one, or two, or three, or etc. Cars, houses, books, sales, horses, discoveries, stars, baseball games, holidays, nations, trees, ideas ---- all these are countable nouns. If the noun can be singular or plural, that's a good hint that it's countable. For countable nouns, we use "many", "how many", "number", "more", and "fewer".
Uncountable nouns are those things that come in contiguously undifferentiated masses, in bulk, without discernible pieces or parts. Time, space, air, water, meat, distance, weight, knowledge, truth, justice, freedom --- these are uncountable nouns. If the noun is always singular, no matter how much there is, that's a good indication that it's uncountable. For countable nouns, we use "much", "how much", "amount", "more", and "less".
He has many books. He has much knowledge.
How many books does he have? How much knowledge does he have?
He bought a large number of books. He gained a large amount of knowledge.
He has more books than I do. He has more knowledge than I do.
I have fewer books than he does. I have less knowledge than he does.

I will caution you --- while these countable/uncountable rules are very precise with essentially no exception, most grammar rules are not like this. Grammar is not mathematics --- clean and rigid and precise. Grammar reflects the oddities of living language.

I realize that your test is very soon, and I sincerely wish you all the best. If you do well, that's fantastic! If you don't do well, and want to take the GMAT a second time, then I am going to recommend that you READ --- read challenging English an hour a day, above and beyond any GMAT prep you are doing. Here's a blog about what to read:
You don't master grammar by memorizing rules. You master grammar by seeing it in context, and you only see this if you read regularly.

Let me know if you have any further questions in the next few days.
Mike

I appreciate your concern Mike ..

but the thing is I am gonna nail it the first time, reading challenging English will help me in other things, will do that anyways. That link is going to bookmark toolbar.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]  05 Oct 2014, 02:19
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development   [#permalink] 05 Oct 2014, 02:19

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# Because of the enormous research and development

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