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# Because of the recent developments in genetic replication

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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  27 Nov 2012, 01:28
I don't see any problem with the usage of caused by in D and E, no doubt both the options have meaning +parallelism issues.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  27 Nov 2012, 01:50
Expert's post
Vineetk wrote:
@Marcab- found one, here it goes:

DARPA's Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

A. its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
B. preventing its engine's thrust in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine's thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design.
D. prevented its engine's thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
E. its engine's thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.

Only A is correct. Logically and Grammatically.
A) its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design. This clause basically describes HOW DFHT Vehicle can fly so fast. It is an absolute phrase and the question is well beyond 700 level.
B) preventing its engine's thrust in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design. Since "preventing" is an verb+ing modifier, it implies that this clause is a consequence of the preceding clause. Illogical
C) SAME ISSUE. Didn't even care to read further. Saved the time.
D) prevented its engine's thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design. Contains an verb-ed; implies that someone has prevented the subject of the preceding clause
E)its engine's thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design contains an independent clause and two independent clause can't co-exist without a conjunction.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  27 Nov 2012, 02:17
Alrighty.. it will be a fight for me to find a right question. Here is another one hope this can explain my point of view:

European leaders, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed for signing, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.

A. for signing, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it
B. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank who would require them
C. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank, requiring them
D. to sign, with the help of world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require them
E. for signing an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank that would require them

Last edited by Vineetk on 27 Nov 2012, 02:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  27 Nov 2012, 02:28
Expert's post
Vineetk wrote:
Alrighty.. it will be a fight for me to find a right question. Here is another one hope this can explain my point of view:

European leader, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed for signing, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.

A. for signing, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it
B. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank who would require them
C. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank, requiring them
D. to sign, with the help of world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require them
E. for signing an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank that would require them

Seems that "them" has got no referrent in last 4 options. Assuming this is the correct question, A seems to be the best fit.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  27 Nov 2012, 02:59
Marcab wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
Alrighty.. it will be a fight for me to find a right question. Here is another one hope this can explain my point of view:

European leaders, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed for signing, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.

A. for signing, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it
B. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank who would require them
C. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank, requiring them
D. to sign, with the help of world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require them
E. for signing an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank that would require them

Seems that "them" has got no referrent in last 4 options. Assuming this is the correct question, A seems to be the best fit.

Have edited the question.

Last edited by Vineetk on 27 Nov 2012, 03:00, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  27 Nov 2012, 03:00
Marcab wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
Alrighty.. it will be a fight for me to find a right question. Here is another one hope this can explain my point of view:

European leader, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed for signing, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.

A. for signing, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it
B. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank who would require them
C. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank, requiring them
D. to sign, with the help of world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require them
E. for signing an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank that would require them

Seems that "them" has got no referrent in last 4 options. Assuming this is the correct question, A seems to be the best fit.

should be C.

and should be be European Leaders IMO.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  27 Nov 2012, 09:23
Expert's post
Hi Marcab,

Take a look at this question:
As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. (GMAT Prep)

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have

You can solve this question only if you understand the intended meaning. Hence, it is very important to understand what the author wants to communicate. SC is all about how well we interpret the information given and how clearly we can communicate the same.

I’m sure, you must have heard about this April announcement by the GMAC that now on they will also give stress to the meaning rather than just the grammar. At e-gmat, right from our inception, we have always approached SC problems from meaning standpoint.

The following sentence is just an example of that:

Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

This sentence says that modern developments have enabled scientists to create super humans. Now, from our common knowledge, we know that “genes” are responsible for passing genetic traits from one generation to another. Hence, is only makes sense to say that scientists are able to create super humans through genetic reproduction by retaining…, altering… and adding…

Choice C is certainly a grammatically correct answer choice but it changes the meaning of the sentence by making every event independent of each other. Even in many official questions, we do get grammatically correct choice but they stand incorrect if the entities in the list fail to convey logical meaning. We have also written an article named “Parallelism: Grammar Vs. Logic”. Following is the link for the article:
parallelism-grammar-vs-logic-141946.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  27 Nov 2012, 09:51
Expert's post
Many thanks for intervening.
The example that you gave did not satisfied me in that it didn't contain any other option that was LOGICALLY CORRECT; some answer choices were well interested in increasing the electronic devices. Its entirely illogical.
But the problem, which we are discussing in this thread is different one. C is logically also correct.
So if there are two logically correct choices, then how can we make sure the intended meaning of the author.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  28 Nov 2012, 06:23
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Lots of great discussion on this question. I'm not sure why the OA hasn't been posted (not sure why we like to withhold the OA), but I believe the OA is A. As part of my answer, I will address a few issues: cautions for non-GMAT questions, intended meaning in general, and intended meaning in this question.

Cautions for Non-GMAT Questions
First a word of caution on non-GMAT questions. I am a huge advocate of learning and applying processes and principles in your GMAT study. Where you have to be careful is in the application of these principles on questions from non-GMAT sources. GMAT questions (from GMATPrep and OGs) are created by the GMAC and have been through immense amounts of testing to prove validity and accuracy with the content areas the GMAT is trying to test against. Non-GMAT sources (i.e. test prep companies) are doing their best to test the same content areas, but the questions aren't always going to work perfectly. If you learn a solid GMAT principle and for some reason you can't apply it correctly against a question from a non-GMAT source, don't throw away the principle. Focus on the principle that is clearly being taught in the problem and move on.

Intended Meaning
We have to be careful with semantics when discussing intended meaning. There is clearly an "intended" meaning for every sentence (who writes a sentence without some intended meaning?), but that "intention" isn't always clear from the original sentence. When reading the original sentence, you should be reading so that you can grasp the sentence's "intention" and make sure the correct answer maintains the intent. If the intent of the original is flawed, your answer should reflect the proper "intent". When you have two answers that are both grammatically correct, you should go back to the original and match the intent of the original unless it is logically flawed.

Intended Meaning in this Question
There is no logical flaw in the intended meaning of the original sentence, therefore there is no reason to change the meaning (vote for A). Also, this question was posted as part of a parallelism review (markers-in-parallelism-139076.html), so it's clear that the question was designed to test parallelism (the meaning differences due to parallelism were probably unitended). If you look at this as a "standard" parallelism example, a list, only choice A conveys that list clearly. Diving deeper into meaning, I think you can make an argument for the parallelism in choice C, but the meaning becomes difficult to discern because there are too many commas. The GMAT isn't afraid of lots of commas, but the GMAT uses correct answers that have very clear meaning. If there are too many commas in a sentence, the GMAT will often use other punctuation to help clarify meaning - colons, semi-colons, and dashes.

Fun review - nice discussion everyone...

KW
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  28 Nov 2012, 10:18
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I got the point now and many thanks for intervening.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  28 Nov 2012, 10:32
Expert's post
gmatbull wrote:
Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.
A:....
B: Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of
C: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add
D: Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add
E: Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

I am responding to a pm from Marcab. I'm happy to help.

There's already a lot of discussion on this page --- I hope to contribute more clarity than noise to this discussion.

First of all, I am not familiar with the source e-GMAT, but this question has me suspicious. On the real GMAT, the splits revolve largely around grammar mistakes, and many also involve awkwardness vs concision. Once in a while, there is also some logic to reason out, but often those same answer choices can be eliminated purely on logical grounds. Here, we arguably have four grammatically correct answer choices ---- (B) is clearly flawed, and we have so sort through the logical implications of each to determine a correct answer. I feel relatively confident in saying: the real GMAT is not going to ask you to do this. This question takes the "logic" thing completely overboard. This takes something implicit in certain answer choices in certain SC questions in the OG and blows it up, essentially making it the sole focus of this question. I don't know how representative this one question is, but it does not indicate a particularly keen sense of GMAC's priorities. It often astounds me how many practice SC question seem written by folks who have no clue about what GMAC actually considers important.

So, to the logic of this question. First, a moment on (B), which is wrong --- this is a very interesting mistake. Two easily confused idioms:
i) "because" ---- this word is a subordinate conjunction, and must be followed by a full [noun] + [verb] clause
ii) "because of" --- this phrase is a preposition, and therefore is followed only by a noun.
Thus,
this phrase, "because of the recent developments", is a perfectly valid preposition phrase that could be part of a larger sentence, but
this phrase, "because the recent developments", is, by itself, incomplete ---- it's begging for a verb that doesn't arrive. This is exactly the mistake that (B) makes.

As for the other four, I don't see any clear grammatical mistake. The "mistakes" all revolve around the logical implication of various configurations of the parallelism. Keeping faithful, as much as possible, the logic of the original prompt is usually a good guide, but again, the real GMAT not going to ask you to sort through a logical thicket like this.

In this particular case, I think the subject matter of this sentence invites us to step back a bit and simply compare the elements on logical grounds. Basically, we have these four elements
[1] create super humans through genetic reproduction
[2] retain the most efficient genes of the current generation
[3] alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases
[4] add new genes that will introduce unique characteristics
and those four verbs are changed to various combinations of infinitive & participles, depending on the parallelism scheme chosen.

What I notice about these is, to quote the time-worn Sesame Street phrase: one of these things is not like the others.

Phrase [1] leaps out as headline news, a big ticket item ----- imagine the headlines "scientists create super human through genetic reproduction" --- that's gigantic font front & center of page 1 of the newspaper, or the banner story on CNN. By comparison, try any of the others ---- "scientists retain the most efficient genes of the current generation" --- yawn! That's the headline of a special feature article buried somewhere later in the paper. Do you see what I mean? Phrase [1] is mythic in its stature, and the other three are inherently the stuff of detail work. In particular, phrases [2] - [4] are all about actions done to genes, so this more or less demands that those three are in parallel with each other. The fact that [1] is a statement of such a different level of import means that [1] can't be in parallel with the other three. Therefore we need the structure [1] comma then [2]//[3]//[4]. Only (A) gives us that particular structure, so that's the only possible answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  28 Nov 2012, 11:02
Thanks to everyone; it was such an interesting discussion.
@Kyle,
I indicated the OA (A) in a previous post on page1 of this thread.

Marcab: it was nice the objective criticism brought quite a good number of opinions, and they were very helpful.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  28 Nov 2012, 11:48
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@gmatbull
Keep posting such questions and unless I get satisfied with with the entire SC question, I will keep criticizing the OAs.
This club would have not have been of such quality without members such as Kyle, to whom I raised millions of questions, Shraddha and Mike.

And since I have always been faithful to MGMAT, here's +1 to you Kyle.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  29 Nov 2012, 07:07
Vineetk wrote:
@Marcab- found one, here it goes:

DARPA's Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

A. its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
B. preventing its engine's thrust in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine's thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design.
D. prevented its engine's thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
E. its engine's thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.

Wat's the answer of the given question??I chose B option as its nswer,,Plz Reply...
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  29 Nov 2012, 07:12
Maryam787 wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
@Marcab- found one, here it goes:

DARPA's Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

A. its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
B. preventing its engine's thrust in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine's thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design.
D. prevented its engine's thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
E. its engine's thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.

Wat's the answer of the given question??I chose B option as its nswer,,Plz Reply...

The correct answer is A as explained by Marcab..
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  29 Nov 2012, 09:45
Expert's post
Maryam787 wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
DARPA's Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
A. its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
B. preventing its engine's thrust in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine's thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design.
D. prevented its engine's thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
E. its engine's thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.

I'm happy to help with this.

The answer is A. The grammatical structure we have here is something called an absolute phrase --- an absolute phrase has the structure [noun] + [participle], and it stands apart from the rest of the sentence. It often describes a condition or situation that accompanies the main action of the sentence. Here are some example sentences, with the absolute phrase in green.

1) Stocks falling, I decided to invest in gold.

2) The Cardinals defeated in the NCLS, the SF Giants went on to play Detroit in the World Series.

3) The debate settled, they decided to go out to dinner.

4) All things being equal, she will arrive after lunch.

I must admit, I don't think that I have seen a single absolute phrase in any SC question in the OG, so I am not sure whether GMAC would test this particular grammatical feature. Technically, it is grammatically correct, but it may not be a concept GMAC chooses to pursue in SC questions.

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  29 Nov 2012, 10:02
Expert's post
Hii Mike.
If you wish, I can post the official questions that tested the concept of Absolute Phrases.
I don't remember them very clearly but if you search for those questions with the words typed as below, you will definitely come across those.
They were:
#-1)With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom.

(A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with

(B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its

(C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has

(D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its

(E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have

#-2)Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
1)same as underlined
2)prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
3) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
4) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
5) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

#-3)Margaret Courtney-Clarke has traveled to remote dwellings in the Transvaal to photograph the art of Ndebele women, whose murals are brilliantly colored, their geometrical symmetries embellished with old and new iconography and in a style that varies from woman to woman and house to house.
(A) whose murals are brilliantly colored, their geometrical symmetries embellished with old and new iconography and in a style that varies from woman to woman and house to house
(B) whose murals are brilliantly colored, their geometrical symmetries are embellished with old and new iconography, and their style is varying among women and houses
(C) whose murals are brilliantly colored, their geometrical symmetries are embellished with old and new iconography, and they are in styles that vary from woman to woman and house to house
(D) with murals brilliantly colored, their geometrical symmetries embellished with old and new iconography, and their style varies among women and houses
(E) with murals that are brilliantly colored, their geometrical symmetries.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  01 Dec 2012, 05:41
mikemcgarry wrote:
Maryam787 wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
DARPA's Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
A. its engine's thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
B. preventing its engine's thrust in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine's thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design.
D. prevented its engine's thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
E. its engine's thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design.

I'm happy to help with this.

The answer is A. The grammatical structure we have here is something called an absolute phrase --- an absolute phrase has the structure [noun] + [participle], and it stands apart from the rest of the sentence. It often describes a condition or situation that accompanies the main action of the sentence. Here are some example sentences, with the absolute phrase in green.

1) Stocks falling, I decided to invest in gold.

2) The Cardinals defeated in the NCLS, the SF Giants went on to play Detroit in the World Series.

3) The debate settled, they decided to go out to dinner.

4) All things being equal, she will arrive after lunch.

I must admit, I don't think that I have seen a single absolute phrase in any SC question in the OG, so I am not sure whether GMAC would test this particular grammatical feature. Technically, it is grammatically correct, but it may not be a concept GMAC chooses to pursue in SC questions.

Does all this make sense?

Mike

Thanks Mike , I got the point,,,
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  07 Dec 2012, 01:48
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Expert's post
gmatbull wrote:
Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create
super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering
the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding
new genes that will introduce
unique characteristics.

A:....
B: Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans
through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that
is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of
C: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super
humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes
that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add
D: Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans
through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are
responsible for currently known major diseases, and add
E: Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans
through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are
responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

The underlined part of the sentence looks pretty long...
OA is
[Reveal] Spoiler:
just after discussions

Responding to a pm:

When we read the original sentence, one thing jumps out at us - parallel structure. We need to keep the following 3 elements in parallel.

- retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation,
- altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases,
- adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

We can reject B, C and E outright. These three elements are not in parallel.

Now consider D.
The correct usage is 'because of'. 'Because of' modifies the verb and answers the question 'why?' So the correct usage is 'Scientists are able to create super humans because of ...'
'Due to' modifies a noun. Hence, we cannot use it here.
Also, D puts 4 elements in parallel:
- create super humans through genetic reproduction,
- retain the most efficient genes of the current generation,
- alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases,
- and add new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

This distorts the meaning of the sentence. Scientists are able to create super humans by 'retaining', 'altering' and 'adding'.

A retains the parallel structure and is meaningful. Hence (A).
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication [#permalink]  20 Sep 2013, 12:52
Expert's post
Hello everyone,

The detailed solution of question has been posted in the following thread:

markers-in-parallelism-139076.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Because of the recent developments in genetic replication   [#permalink] 20 Sep 2013, 12:52

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