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Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a

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Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2012, 11:18
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Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a colony and they would relinquish power only after a long struggle by the native people.
A Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a colony and they would relinquish power
B Before independence in 1947, Britain had ruled India as a colony and relinquished power
C Before its independence in 1947, India was ruled by Britain as a colony and they relinquished power
D Before independence in 1947, India had been ruled as a colony by Britain, which relinquished power
E Before independence in 1947, India had been a colony of the British, who relinquished power

Explanations please
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2012, 12:33
Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a colony and they would relinquish power only after a long struggle by the native people.

"Before its independence in 1947" is modifying Britain here which is wrong.Also "its" should have a clear antecedent,which should be in possessive form as the pronoun is.

So we have (D) and (E) now.Between (D) and (E) there is no grammatical mistake but (E) is more precise.
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Re: Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2012, 07:08
The key to unlocking this question is in the modifier ‘Before its independence in 1947’. Who was independent? India became independent, therefore India needs to be beside the modifier. This eliminates A and B.
Then by POE –
C – ‘they’ has no obvious antecedent.
D – to say ruled as a colony is redundant. It would be more efficient to say ‘was ruled by’ or ‘was a colony’.
E – Correct
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Re: Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2012, 11:19
Between choice D and E. Choice E is better because ruled and colony in choice D is redundant.
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Re: Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2012, 03:36
Eliminate A,B- Modifier error
C-Pronoun inconsistency- they refers to whom?
D-Rules as acolony is somewhat awkward and also the use of which
E- here who refers to the briish. The modifier is also appropriate

+1 for E
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Re: Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2014, 02:20
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2015, 12:19
Errors in the sentence:
1. Modifier Error - The modifier "Before its...in 1947" is incorrectly modifying Britain - If we ask the question "who got independence", the answer will be India
2. Pronoun Error - The pronoun its does not have a clear referent (also because of the confusing modifier). Also it is in possessive form which should most likely have a possessive noun as a referent
3. Tense Error - "They would relinquish" is the wrong tense used here. British relinquished power in 1947 - The event happened in past and is over with (i.e. a fact). It is always good to represent facts by simple tenses --> The use of conditional tense in hence incorrect
4. Meaning Error (created by use of as) - As here seems to create a confusion while saying that the British ruled India as (a what?) - a colony (sounds strange?). This should be removed to create a clear and unambiguous meaning (The GMAT way)

Eliminating options now:
A. Lots of reasons to kick this out
B. Modifier error still exists, also the use of and creates a parallelism setting --> This changes the meaning as to say that the British ruled and than they relinquished power. Also, if the list is parallel the actions should be represented in the same tense (here they are in past perfect "had ruled" and simple past "relinquished"
C. Errors 1, 4 still exist
D. Error 4 is present
E. Corrects every error listed here

Thanks
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Before its independence in 1947, Britain ruled India as a   [#permalink] 15 Dec 2015, 12:19
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