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# Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the

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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]  02 May 2005, 00:59
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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.

A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]  28 Jan 2008, 05:26
Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
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Re: cr -1000 [#permalink]  28 Jan 2008, 13:38
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.(Stated in the passge)
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.(Hold It)
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.(Not a good inference)
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.(Stated in he passage
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.(Out of scope)

left with B

OA?
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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]  03 Jun 2008, 11:03
Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporations unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.

(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.

(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.

(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.

(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

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Re: CR-Excerpt from a letter [#permalink]  03 Jun 2008, 13:10
B.

Here is my reasoning in red next to each answer.

What's the OA?

apurva1985 wrote:
Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporations unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
The question states as much so it can't be an inference.

(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.

Even though this statement starts outwith "any", it later says "may have committed". The entire answer seems to only make one step from the passage. He passage doesn't state what his motivations were, but it is implied by his reference to the benefit to the company. It's not necessarily true, but it is inferred (in my opinion).

(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.

This answer uses the word "any". Generally speaking, when an answer uses such an absolute word, it's a red flag that it is wrong.

(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.

Again, the passage actually states as much, so this isn't really an inference.

(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

This goes one step (or more) too far. The passage says nothing about legal proceedings against the chairman, so the next step would be he was acquitted. When thinking of inferences, find something that goes just 1 step further. This goes 1 step to legal proceedings and then a 2nd step to an acquittal from those proceedings.

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Re: CR-Excerpt from a letter [#permalink]  03 Jun 2008, 19:35
Actually I think that D makes sense as I was torn betwen A and D. The CR is asking what can be inferred from the passage:

Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporations unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
This comes close in my mind as he states that" Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation" however my reasoning here is that there is no way to infer this includes EVERYBODY...he mentions individuals which could be a few, some or many but by no means all

(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
Absolutely not! There is no way to infer this, the chairman mentions them as two separate reasons

(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
He could be lying his ass off and be behind the next Enron scandal. We can't say he's not guilty just because he says so!

(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
He says "as the corporations unbroken six-year record of growth will show". CLEARLY you dont have to infer much to believe this right? Bingo!

(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

Just remember, at times, as is the case with RC, an inference question only goes as far as you can throw a stick and is very close to something already stated in the passage maybe with a different play on words

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Re: CR-Excerpt from a letter [#permalink]  03 Jun 2008, 19:43
actually i disagree with D..

if anything the corp has grown..by record numbers..that is hardly any indication of steady growth..it has grown explosively..

i think A is best..

what is the source of this question.?
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Re: CR-Excerpt from a letter [#permalink]  03 Jun 2008, 19:51
That's a good point, however I think a "six year record of growth" could also mean that yeah the company has grown by 2% or 5% etc a year which even by a compounded effect is not something to write home about.

I think it really comes down to picking between the "lesser evil" here. My main issue with A is the use of ALL which is a big leap of faith from "individuals". One that may be bigger than assuming that a "six year record of growth" equates to "expanded steadily over the past six years"...

Not a fun question that's for sure....
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Re: CR-Excerpt from a letter [#permalink]  03 Jun 2008, 21:57
I am reluctant to choose A since there is nothing to inferr and i don't think there is problem with A wrt word "All" since sentense clearly says "All those who have demanded resignation.." so it boils down to only some people,not all employees.

Morever passage clearly states that "growth will show" so chairman is clearly referring to future results but according to D says "The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years".So there is a confusion which 6 six years are referred to.

Given all this i will try my luck with A.
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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]  03 Jul 2008, 18:27
1. Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
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Re: CR- resignation [#permalink]  05 Jul 2008, 18:08
spriya

For that matter E also looks good. Stimulus says Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever.

Not guilty and acquittal are cause/effect in the sense that only people who are not guilty are acquitted. People who are guilty will be convicted. How ever, the word Any pulled me back as its a inference Q. But reading the stimulus again, it says no court of law has found him guilty. Thats when I felt E is probably a keeper. How different are legal proceedings from criminal offenses might be the killer here on E?

A to me is merely a restatement, Some one might say so with E as well

D how ever translates unbroken six-year record of growth into steady growth for the past six years.

I find this Q very atypical of GMAT inference Q's where is this Q from?

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Re: CR- resignation [#permalink]  05 Jul 2008, 22:09

Here is why A is incorrect:
A states that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes. In formal logic this means (If Demand Resignation then Motivated by personal Desires)
However, in the stimulus it says, "Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation." In formal logic this means (If Motivated by personal Desires then Demand Resignation).
In simpler terms choice A says, A then B however, we only know B then A to be true from the simulus.
Therefore, choice A is an incorrect reversal of the sufficient and necessary terms.

icandy, E is incorrect because we don't know the results of ANY legal preceedings against the chairman. For all we know they are still in progress, hence he hasn't been found guilty yet.
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Re: CR- resignation [#permalink]  07 Jul 2008, 05:23
spriya wrote:
Merely restating whats given in the argument does not mean it is inference .So (A) is out.Now i could get the logic. In (E) its just how can v relate criminal offences with legal pioceedings.So this out .
(D) seems to be the best solution

Actually it does. On an inference question we are looking for the answer that MUST be true. But in this case (A) does not restate what is given in the argument. The argument says that the the individuals seeking to control the corporation have called for his resignation. (A) says that ALL those who are demanding his resignation seek to control the corporation. (A) is not a restating of the argument.

ex.

The people who want to control the corporation are calling for his resignation.

All people calling for his resignation want to control the corporation.

The second one is not restating the first.

But I agree that D is the answer.

Unbroken 6 year growth = Expanding steadily.
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Letter from the chairman [#permalink]  28 Aug 2008, 23:41
Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
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Re: Letter from the chairman [#permalink]  29 Aug 2008, 08:50
Tarek,

the passage says "in the American tradition", which is then not referenced in the C alternative. The passage states the opinion of the chairman, but the question to "properly infer" makes no mention of "according to the chairman".

On the other end, there is no way in which one could argue about the company's growth record, is there?

I still think that the answer is C. So, since one could not argue about the company's growth record as you said, what do you think is the guy trying to say here? The "in the American tradition" shouldn't be referenced directly because this is an inference question. What do you honestly think is the guy trying to say indirectly? he's trying to say that he's innocent.
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Re: Letter from the chairman [#permalink]  29 Aug 2008, 16:05
tarek99 wrote:
Tarek,

I am not 100% sure that ans is D and surely respect your opinion. However, the question here is "what can be properly inferred", not what the guy's main point is (which for me, is that he is not gonna resign now since he's not been proven guilty now).

Let us wait for the OA.

I was considering that I could be wrong, not you. We are meant to read words in a different light .
My answer choice was never D, but rather C.

oh, ok. hehe....well, let me provide my reasoning to each answer choice:

A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.

First of all, an inference is something not explicitly stated, but this answer choice is directly mentioned in the passage, so eliminate.

(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.

Any misdeeds? The argument discussed about only 1 particular case, so the usage of "any" is extreme

(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.

That's what he's trying to say indirectly, so CORRECT!

(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.

This is mentioned directly in the passage, so this can't be an inference

(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

NEVER speculate when making an inference. There is nothing mentioned in the passage that suggests the outcome of any legal action against him.

Therefore, C should be the answer
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A number of charges have been raised against me, some [#permalink]  16 Feb 2009, 10:09
Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.

A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
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Re: CR Chairman. [#permalink]  16 Feb 2009, 21:44
In attempting I am getting the INFERENCE Q wrong.

It is because my fundamentals are , there is a difference between "must-be-true" and "inferred" questions.

For a must-be-true Q we can restate a premise or conclude on 2-3 premises etc.
But for inference Q , it has to be an external factor which is not directly stated in the premises.

It works for me in many cases but doesn't work in some cases.

For example here .....
Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, ......

Why I get confused is that actually we are restating the a given fact premise, so how is it Inference ?

If any one has some idea .... pl help. I don't want to know why OA id D. I want guidance in fundamentals here.
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Re: CR Chairman. [#permalink]  17 Feb 2009, 04:55
chalven wrote:
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

Conclusion of the stem is that chairman is innocent until proven otherwise and that the Corporation has shown growth during the tenure of the current chairman
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
There might be some individuals who might have demanded the current chairman's resignation and these guys might not have been motivated enough to press charges against him.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
The stem does not directly imply this.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
Stem says that chairman is not guilty until proven otherwise, hence this is not implied.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
Stem says it has. Correct answer
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
Stem does not directly refer to something like this, it just says that the chairman is innocent until proven otherwise.

In case my answer is incorrect, please let me know where is went wrong.

Thanks
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Re: CR Chairman. [#permalink]  17 Feb 2009, 06:07
Hi idiotdumbguy,

I find all your reasoning adequate except the first one. For option 1, you've stated the following:
---------------------------------------------
There might be some individuals who might have demanded the current chairman's resignation and these guys might not have been motivated enough to press charges against him.
---------------------------------------------

whereas option 1 states something different:
---------------------------------------------
The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
---------------------------------------------

It’s nowhere focusing on how much motivated where those people who demanded his resignation. Focus is on the cause of motivation and NOT the degree of motivation.

You only have to explain that among those who demanded the resignation, there could be few who had reasons other than the desire to control the corporation. In other words, those few people were motivated by some other desire. For ex., those few people desired to improve transparency in the organization, which the current chairman was not interested in, and hence, the demand for his resignation.

Does it make sense now?

Regards,
Technext
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Re: CR Chairman. [#permalink]  18 Feb 2009, 22:08
gmatavenue advised me privately that this is an Arco question, not real GMAC.

SORRY -- CORRECTION -- I am thinking of a different question. I have NOT been told what the source of this one was. Sorry, gmatavenue
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Re: CR Chairman.   [#permalink] 18 Feb 2009, 22:08

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