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# Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency

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Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2008, 04:30
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Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency distribution of letters and letter sequences, was the standard typewriter keyboard designed?
Cora: To ask this question, you must be making a mistaken assumption: that typing speed was to be maximized. The real danger with early typewriters was that operators would hit successive keys too quickly, thereby crashing typebars into each other, bending connecting wires and so on. So the idea was to slow the operator down by making the most common letter sequences awkward to type.
Bernand: This is surely not right! These technological limitations have long since vanished, yet the keyboard is still as it was then.
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard’s rejection of her explanation?
(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2008, 04:59
IMO E.
If alternative layouts are available then Bernards last statement falls.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2008, 05:10
A makes sense

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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2008, 06:29
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raunekk wrote:
Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency distribution of letters and letter sequences, was the standard typewriter keyboard designed?
Cora: To ask this question, you must be making a mistaken assumption: that typing speed was to be maximized. The real danger with early typewriters was that operators would hit successive keys too quickly, thereby crashing typebars into each other, bending connecting wires and so on. So the idea was to slow the operator down by making the most common letter sequences awkward to type.
Bernand: This is surely not right! These technological limitations have long since vanished, yet the keyboard is still as it was then.
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard’s rejection of her explanation?
(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.

Bernard's Conclusion:- Argue about the arrangements of keys on typewriter.(what not the keys are inline is the intention of Bernard)

Cora's Conclusion:- The key arrangement is random because technical problems happen due to people's usage of typewriter.

Bernard's Conclusion:- Technological limitations has already vanished so it is possible to change to inline keyboards.

Cora's Counter Argument:- Even though technically it ismpossible to make such inline keyboards, people got trained on older versions and they ask for the older one.So technical advancement does not matter much.

As stated in statement A.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2008, 07:46
I feel it should be C.

Here's why.

Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency distribution of letters and letter sequences, was the standard typewriter keyboard designed?
Cora: To ask this question, you must be making a mistaken assumption: that typing speed was to be maximized. The real danger with early typewriters was that operators would hit successive keys too quickly, thereby crashing typebars into each other, bending connecting wires and so on. So the idea was to slow the operator down by making the most common letter sequences awkward to type.
Bernand: This is surely not right! These technological limitations have long since vanished, yet the keyboard is still as it was then.
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard’s rejection of her explanation?
(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
Well this might be true for people who have used the traditional keyboard, but it does not talk about the rest who are new to keyboards in the first place. Those guys would want something that is easier to use..and thus this explaination falls apart.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
Does not talk about the costs/effort needed to incorporate new word-processing equipment and the costs/effort needed to train people to use existing equipment.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
This holds, as it talks about a significant advantage in the long run. This clearly gurantees that using the existing layout would increase speed and hence efficiency, due to which people have stayed from changing the existing layout.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
This does not explain anything.
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.
Weakens her point.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 07:11
C for me too.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 11:07
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Bernard wants to know what language the typewriter was designed for due to the letter distribution.

Cora replies that Bernard is assuming the typewriter was designed for maximum speed. Instead she says that the layout was designed to reduce speed to keep the typewriter from jamming.

Bernard says that this must not be true because these physical limitation are no longer present and the keyboard has the same layout as the typewriter.

To counter Bernard's last argument we have to show why the keyboard has the same layout as the typewriter even though the typewriter was designed to reduce speed due to physical limitations. Common sense would tell you that if the typewriter was designed to reduce speed due physical limitations, once those limitations were removed you would redesign the keyboard to go faster.

(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
Close. This says that people learn on a keyboard and therefore they prefer a keyboard to be used with their equipment. But it does not indicate why the keyboard is the same layout as the typewriter.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
Correct. The keyboards inherited their layout from typewriters. The layout stayed the same because that's what people were used too.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
Doesn't address why the keyboard is the same layout as the typewriter.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
This decreases the argument. If people can readily learn a second layout then that helps Bernard's argument
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.
Same as D
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 11:22
gixxer1000 wrote:
Bernard wants to know what language the typewriter was designed for due to the letter distribution.

Cora replies that Bernard is assuming the typewriter was designed for maximum speed. Instead she says that the layout was designed to reduce speed to keep the typewriter from jamming.

Bernard says that this must not be true because these physical limitation are no longer present and the keyboard has the same layout as the typewriter.

To counter Bernard's last argument we have to show why the keyboard has the same layout as the typewriter even though the typewriter was designed to reduce speed due to physical limitations. Common sense would tell you that if the typewriter was designed to reduce speed due physical limitations, once those limitations were removed you would redesign the keyboard to go faster.

(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
Close. This says that people learn on a keyboard and therefore they prefer a keyboard to be used with their equipment. But it does not indicate why the keyboard is the same layout as the typewriter.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
Correct. The keyboards inherited their layout from typewriters. The layout stayed the same because that's what people were used too.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
Doesn't address why the keyboard is the same layout as the typewriter.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
This decreases the argument. If people can readily learn a second layout then that helps Bernard's argument
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.
Same as D

Your reasoning in general is correct, but I'm going to have to go with A.
I think your interpretation of A & B are mixed up.
B) doesn't make sense because it doesn't give an explanation => why would the standard keyboard layout be inherited and not changed? Doesn't counter Bernard's statement.
A) on the other hand, explains that it stayed the same (inherited) the layout because of lack of demand for the new layout => high switching costs for the typical customer segment.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 11:32
jasonc wrote:
gixxer1000 wrote:
Bernard wants to know what language the typewriter was designed for due to the letter distribution.

Cora replies that Bernard is assuming the typewriter was designed for maximum speed. Instead she says that the layout was designed to reduce speed to keep the typewriter from jamming.

Bernard says that this must not be true because these physical limitation are no longer present and the keyboard has the same layout as the typewriter.

To counter Bernard's last argument we have to show why the keyboard has the same layout as the typewriter even though the typewriter was designed to reduce speed due to physical limitations. Common sense would tell you that if the typewriter was designed to reduce speed due physical limitations, once those limitations were removed you would redesign the keyboard to go faster.

(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
Close. This says that people learn on a keyboard and therefore they prefer a keyboard to be used with their equipment. But it does not indicate why the keyboard is the same layout as the typewriter.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
Correct. The keyboards inherited their layout from typewriters. The layout stayed the same because that's what people were used too.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
Doesn't address why the keyboard is the same layout as the typewriter.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
This decreases the argument. If people can readily learn a second layout then that helps Bernard's argument
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.
Same as D

Your reasoning in general is correct, but I'm going to have to go with A.
I think your interpretation of A & B are mixed up.
B) doesn't make sense because it doesn't give an explanation => why would the standard keyboard layout be inherited and not changed? Doesn't counter Bernard's statement.
A) on the other hand, explains that it stayed the same (inherited) the layout because of lack of demand for the new layout => high switching costs for the typical customer segment.

Originally I looked at A as the answer. But it says that typewriters and word processors are typically sold to people who learned on the keyboard. Therefore it makes no connection between the original typewriter and the present keyboard. B says that the keyboard inherited its layout from the typewriter. The word inherited implies that people adopted the layout on the keyboard from the typewriter because that's what they were used to. For example you can inherit bad habits from your parents. You do them not because these habits are most effective but instead because that's the way they have always been done.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 12:04
To me, this is a tough one. I had hard time to understand it. Thanks guys for making it easier to digest. I'm debating between A & B. Reading all the above explanation, I'm leaning towards B. Gixxer is right: B explains why keyboard has the same layout as typewriter
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 12:05
gixxer1000 wrote:
jasonc wrote:
gixxer1000 wrote:
Bernard wants to know what language the typewriter was designed for due to the letter distribution.

Cora replies that Bernard is assuming the typewriter was designed for maximum speed. Instead she says that the layout was designed to reduce speed to keep the typewriter from jamming.

Bernard says that this must not be true because these physical limitation are no longer present and the keyboard has the same layout as the typewriter.

To counter Bernard's last argument we have to show why the keyboard has the same layout as the typewriter even though the typewriter was designed to reduce speed due to physical limitations. Common sense would tell you that if the typewriter was designed to reduce speed due physical limitations, once those limitations were removed you would redesign the keyboard to go faster.

(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
Close. This says that people learn on a keyboard and therefore they prefer a keyboard to be used with their equipment. But it does not indicate why the keyboard is the same layout as the typewriter.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
Correct. The keyboards inherited their layout from typewriters. The layout stayed the same because that's what people were used too.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
Doesn't address why the keyboard is the same layout as the typewriter.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
This decreases the argument. If people can readily learn a second layout then that helps Bernard's argument
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.
Same as D

Your reasoning in general is correct, but I'm going to have to go with A.
I think your interpretation of A & B are mixed up.
B) doesn't make sense because it doesn't give an explanation => why would the standard keyboard layout be inherited and not changed? Doesn't counter Bernard's statement.
A) on the other hand, explains that it stayed the same (inherited) the layout because of lack of demand for the new layout => high switching costs for the typical customer segment.

Originally I looked at A as the answer. But it says that typewriters and word processors are typically sold to people who learned on the keyboard. Therefore it makes no connection between the original typewriter and the present keyboard. B says that the keyboard inherited its layout from the typewriter. The word inherited implies that people adopted the layout on the keyboard from the typewriter because that's what they were used to. For example you can inherit bad habits from your parents. You do them not because these habits are most effective but instead because that's the way they have always been done.

I believe one of us is misinterpreting the statements in A/B, but we agree with each other on our reasoning.
I think - Your understanding is that 'keyboard' and 'typewriter' are distinctly different things, with keyboard referring to the newer word processors and typewriters referring to the legacy word
My understanding is that there are old and new word processing equipment, all of which have 'keyboards'. Therefore A) is referring to the new vs old equipment and links them through the common 'standard keyboard'.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 12:25
jasonc wrote:
I believe one of us is misinterpreting the statements in A/B, but we agree with each other on our reasoning.
I think - Your understanding is that 'keyboard' and 'typewriter' are distinctly different things, with keyboard referring to the newer word processors and typewriters referring to the legacy word
My understanding is that there are old and new word processing equipment, all of which have 'keyboards'. Therefore A) is referring to the new vs old equipment and links them through the common 'standard keyboard'.

I agree that our reasoning is the same.

To me its a matter of typewriter vs. keyboard. The word processor was introduced just to confuse us. A word process is electronic and does not have the limitations of a typewriter and therefore is synonymous with a keyboard. Even if there are old and new word processing equipment none of them used a manual bar like a typewriter.

(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.

This says that they are sold to people who learned on a KEYBOARD. Therefore we are only referring to a time when keyboards exist. But why did these people learn on a keyboard to begin with? This is not addressed. When only typewriters existed the layout was there to reduce speed. When they introduced keyboards or word processors without these limitations why did they use the same layout. (A) does not give us an answer. (B) tell us that they used the same layout because it was inherited from the old layout.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 12:37
raunekk wrote:
Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency distribution of letters and letter sequences, was the standard typewriter keyboard designed?
Cora: To ask this question, you must be making a mistaken assumption: that typing speed was to be maximized. The real danger with early typewriters was that operators would hit successive keys too quickly, thereby crashing typebars into each other, bending connecting wires and so on. So the idea was to slow the operator down by making the most common letter sequences awkward to type.
Bernand: This is surely not right! These technological limitations have long since vanished, yet the keyboard is still as it was then.
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard’s rejection of her explanation?
(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.

I think perhaps pointing to the first line will clear up why I think this discussion is about 'new' and 'old' typewriters -both with keyboards - and not about keyboards vs typewriters.
"Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency distribution of letters and letter sequences, was the standard typewriter keyboard designed"
Then we look at the next line:
"Cora: ...The real danger with early typewriters was that..."
Now when we again look at Bernands counter argument, I believe it should be clear that we're talking about new & old typewriters and arguing why they have the same keywboard
"Bernand: ...These technological limitations have long since vanished, yet the keyboard is still as it was then..."

Given that we agree with the above, then A) means => Current/New typewriters & word processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard (developed on the old typewriters) and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.

my 2 cents
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 13:10
jasonc wrote:
raunekk wrote:
Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency distribution of letters and letter sequences, was the standard typewriter keyboard designed?
Cora: To ask this question, you must be making a mistaken assumption: that typing speed was to be maximized. The real danger with early typewriters was that operators would hit successive keys too quickly, thereby crashing typebars into each other, bending connecting wires and so on. So the idea was to slow the operator down by making the most common letter sequences awkward to type.
Bernand: This is surely not right! These technological limitations have long since vanished, yet the keyboard is still as it was then.
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard’s rejection of her explanation?
(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters.
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult.
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.

I think perhaps pointing to the first line will clear up why I think this discussion is about 'new' and 'old' typewriters -both with keyboards - and not about keyboards vs typewriters.
"Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency distribution of letters and letter sequences, was the standard typewriter keyboard designed"
Then we look at the next line:
"Cora: ...The real danger with early typewriters was that..."
Now when we again look at Bernands counter argument, I believe it should be clear that we're talking about new & old typewriters and arguing why they have the same keywboard
"Bernand: ...These technological limitations have long since vanished, yet the keyboard is still as it was then..."

Given that we agree with the above, then A) means => Current/New typewriters & word processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard (developed on the old typewriters) and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.

my 2 cents

"standard typewriter keyboard"

This is referring to standard keyboard today that resembles the traditional layout of a typewriter. This is used to distinguish it as a keyboard for typing and not a keyboard for a musical instrument for example. If it had just said standard keyboard then it could have been referring to one of those Casio pianos.

He is only asking about the layout with no regards to the difference between a typewriter, word processor, iphone, etc.

So A says that current typewriters and current word processors are typically sold to people who learned on current keyboards. This makes no connection between old typewriters and new anything. It would be correct if it said that people who use the current learned on the old.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 13:24
i m going with A because Bernard says the new KEYBOARD should vanish the old one..but A says the design of the NEW KEYBOARD is determined by people who like to keep the old format.
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2008, 14:31
raunekk wrote:
Bernand: For which language, and thus which frequency distribution of letters and letter sequences, was the standard typewriter keyboard designed?
Cora: To ask this question, you must be making a mistaken assumption: that typing speed was to be maximized. The real danger with early typewriters was that operators would hit successive keys too quickly, thereby crashing typebars into each other, bending connecting wires and so on. So the idea was to slow the operator down by making the most common letter sequences awkward to type.
Bernand: This is surely not right! These technological limitations have long since vanished, yet the keyboard is still as it was then.
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard’s rejection of her explanation?
(A) Typewriters and word-processing equipment are typically sold to people who have learned to use the standard keyboard and who, therefore, demand it in equipment they buy. Incorrect because Bernard's argument concerns the fact that the limitations described by Cora have long since vanished, however the keyboard is still how it was then. This doesn't provide an explanation as to why the keyboard is still as it is
(B) Typewriters have been superseded in most offices by word-processing equipment, which has inherited the standard keyboard from typewriters. Correct. This explains why the keyboard is still as it is
(C) The standard keyboard allows skilled operators to achiever considerable typing speeds, thought it makes acquiring such skills relatively difficult. Incorrect and irrelevant
(D) A person who has learned one keyboard layout can readily learn to use a second one in place of the first, but only with difficulty learn to use a second one alongside the first.Irrelevant
(E) It is now possible to construct typewriter and word-processing equipment in which a single keyboard can accommodate two or even more different keyboard layouts, each accessible to the operator at will.
Incorrect because Cora's argument was based on the limitations of the typrwriter, therefore if the new equipment is able to also accomodate the the typewriter keys then it will reintroduce the previous limitations
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Re: cr:frequency distribution of letters   [#permalink] 03 Jul 2008, 14:31
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