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Between the eighth and eleventh centuries Byzantine Empire

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Between the eighth and eleventh centuries Byzantine Empire [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2004, 03:54
Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A.D., the
Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled
economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the
more striking because it followed a long period of severe
(5) internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire
had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had
possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was
being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times
threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the
(10) empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its
subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary
production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh
century, however, the empire had regained almost half of
its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its
(15) influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy
had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scho-
larship had advanced.
To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and
economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single
(20) phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms
of progress have gone together in a number of states and
civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century
Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity.
Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential
(25) connections among military, economic, and cultural
forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of
historical change.
The common explanation of these apparent conn-
ections in the case of Byzantium would run like this:
(30) when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its
own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy
territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and
more money became available to patronize art and lit-
erature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to
(35) economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.
No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times
during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that
military advances invariably came first. economic
advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the
(40) 860's the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab
incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the
Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the
empire's favor. The beginning of the empire's economic
revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830.
(45) Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to
have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars
and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of
the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a
revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in
(50) 1453.Thus the commonly expected order of military
revival followed by economic and then by cultural
recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival
of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the
subsequent economic and military expansion.

1. Which of the following best states the central idea of
the passage?
(A) The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in
which the usual order of military and economic
revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.
(B) The economic, cultural, and military revival in the
Byzantine Empire between the eighth and
eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the
sequence of revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth-
century Athens.
(C) After 810 Byzantine economic recovery spurred a
military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted
until 1453.
(D) The eighth-century revival of Byzantine learning
is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic
and military precursors have yet to be discovered.
(E) The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the
eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural
rebirth preceding economic and military revival,
the reverse of the commonly accepted order of
progress.

2. The primary purpose of the second paragraph is
which of the following?
(A) To establish the uniqueness of the Byzantine
revival
(B) To show that Augustan Rome and fifth-century
Athens are examples of cultural, economic, and
military expansion against which all subsequent
cases must be measured
(C) To suggest that cultural, economic. and military
advances have tended to be closely interrelated in
different societies.
(D) To argue that, while the revivals of Augustan
Rome and fifth-century Athens were similar, they
are unrelated to other historical examples
(E) To indicate that, wherever possible, historians
should seek to make comparisons with the
earliest chronological examples of revival

3. It can be inferred from the passage that by the
eleventh century the Byzantine military forces
(A) had reached their peak and begun to decline
(B) had eliminated the Bulgarian army
(C) were comparable in size to the army of Rome
under Augustus
(D) were strong enough to withstand the Abbasid
Caliphate's military forces
(E) had achieved control of Byzantine governmental
structures

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Byzantine
Empire sustained significant territorial losses
(A) in 600
(B) during the seventh century
(C) a century after the cultural achievements of the
Byzantine Empire had been lost
(D) soon after the revival of Byzantine learning
(E) in the century after 873

5. In the third paragraph, the author most probably
provides an explanation of the apparent connections
among economic, military, and cultural development
in order to
(A) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium
accords with this model
(B) set up an order of events that is then shown to be
not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium
(C) cast aspersions on traditional historical
scholarship about Byzantium
(D) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for
which no historical precedent exists
(E) argue that military conquest is the paramount
element in the growth of empires

6. According to the author, "The common explanation"
(line 28) of connections between economic, military,
and cultural development is
(A) revolutionary and too new to have been applied
to the history of the Byzantine Empire
(B) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature
of progress
(C) not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole,
but does perhaps accurately describe limited
periods during the revival
(D) equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a
whole and to the history of military, economic,
and cultural advances in ancient Greece and
Rome
(E) essentially not helpful, because military, economic,
and cultural advances are part of a single
phenomenon
Senior Manager
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GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2004, 07:15
10 MIN;
1. A
2. C
3. B
4. B
5. D
6. C
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 [#permalink] New post 25 Apr 2004, 13:00
anyone else?
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 [#permalink] New post 25 Apr 2004, 22:19
took 12 mins

(1) E
(2) C
(3) B
(4) B
(5) B
(6) C

Dharmin
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Kudos [?]: 665 [0], given: 781

Re: [#8] RC Challenge: Byzantine Empire [#permalink] New post 28 Apr 2004, 18:28
Quote:
1. Time yourself
2. Solve as fast as you can
3. Please try to explain your answers and mention the time taken.


Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A.D., the
Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled
economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the
more striking because it followed a long period of severe
(5) internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire
had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had
possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was
being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times
threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the
(10) empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its
subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary
production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh
century, however, the empire had regained almost half of
its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its
(15) influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy
had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scho-
larship had advanced.
To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and
economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single
(20) phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms
of progress have gone together in a number of states and
civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century
Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity.
Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential
(25) connections among military, economic, and cultural
forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of
historical change.
The common explanation of these apparent conn-
ections in the case of Byzantium would run like this:
(30) when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its
own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy
territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and
more money became available to patronize art and lit-
erature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to
(35) economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.
No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times
during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that
military advances invariably came first. economic
advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the
(40) 860's the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab
incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the
Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the
empire's favor. The beginning of the empire's economic
revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830.
(45) Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to
have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars
and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of
the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a
revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in
(50) 1453.Thus the commonly expected order of military
revival followed by economic and then by cultural
recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival
of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the
subsequent economic and military expansion.

Quote:
1. Which of the following best states the central idea of
the passage?
(A) The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in
which the usual order of military and economic
revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.
(B) The economic, cultural, and military revival in the
Byzantine Empire between the eighth and
eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the
sequence of revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth-
century Athens.
(C) After 810 Byzantine economic recovery spurred a
military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted
until 1453.
(D) The eighth-century revival of Byzantine learning
is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic
and military precursors have yet to be discovered.
(E) The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the
eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural
rebirth preceding economic and military revival,
the reverse of the commonly accepted order of
progress.


Answer: E

Quote:
2. The primary purpose of the second paragraph is
which of the following?
(A) To establish the uniqueness of the Byzantine
revival
(B) To show that Augustan Rome and fifth-century
Athens are examples of cultural, economic, and
military expansion against which all subsequent
cases must be measured
(C) To suggest that cultural, economic. and military
advances have tended to be closely interrelated in
different societies.
(D) To argue that, while the revivals of Augustan
Rome and fifth-century Athens were similar, they
are unrelated to other historical examples
(E) To indicate that, wherever possible, historians
should seek to make comparisons with the
earliest chronological examples of revival

Answer: C

Quote:
3. It can be inferred from the passage that by the
eleventh century the Byzantine military forces
(A) had reached their peak and begun to decline
(B) had eliminated the Bulgarian army
(C) were comparable in size to the army of Rome
under Augustus
(D) were strong enough to withstand the Abbasid
Caliphate's military forces
(E) had achieved control of Byzantine governmental
structures

Answer: D

Quote:
4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Byzantine
Empire sustained significant territorial losses
(A) in 600
(B) during the seventh century
(C) a century after the cultural achievements of the
Byzantine Empire had been lost
(D) soon after the revival of Byzantine learning
(E) in the century after 873


Answer: B

Quote:
5. In the third paragraph, the author most probably
provides an explanation of the apparent connections
among economic, military, and cultural development
in order to
(A) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium
accords with this model
(B) set up an order of events that is then shown to be
not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium
(C) cast aspersions on traditional historical
scholarship about Byzantium
(D) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for
which no historical precedent exists
(E) argue that military conquest is the paramount
element in the growth of empires

Answer: B

Quote:
6. According to the author, "The common explanation"
(line 28) of connections between economic, military,
and cultural development is
(A) revolutionary and too new to have been applied
to the history of the Byzantine Empire
(B) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature
of progress
(C) not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole,
but does perhaps accurately describe limited
periods during the revival
(D) equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a
whole and to the history of military, economic,
and cultural advances in ancient Greece and
Rome
(E) essentially not helpful, because military, economic,
and cultural advances are part of a single
phenomenon


Answer: C
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 [#permalink] New post 29 Apr 2004, 12:34
Took 9 minutes and one silly mistake.

1.E
2.C
3.E( Wanted to choose D )
4.B
5.B
6.C
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 [#permalink] New post 07 May 2004, 19:02
Just to confirm. For #4, answer A is incorrect because the answer implies that the empire lost its land in exactly the year 600? And answer B is correct because it gives a general time frame, but according to the passage, no exact time was provided...

Stupid mistake....ugh...
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 [#permalink] New post 19 May 2004, 06:33
Fresh RC wanted!
:)
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 [#permalink] New post 19 May 2004, 19:57
d
c
d
b
b
c
  [#permalink] 19 May 2004, 19:57
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