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Took me 5 min. to understand and find the answer b/w A and D and I pick D
The argument says:
1- In western society, people consume more salt
2- Africans have genes adapted to their own small consumption of salt
3- For Africans with originally low salt consumption, the increase in salt consumption, when they become "westernized", will cause high blood pressure
D says that salt was scarce in an African tribe and the blood pressure of those people was low. This confirms that the increase in salt consumption will increase blood pressure.
A) says the exact opposite: NO salt scarcity --> low blood pressure
B) a mere statement of fact without any substance
C) this mixes up the cause-effect relationship and does not support the researchers' hypothesis
E) this destroys the researchers' hypothesis _________________
Last edited by Paul on 12 Apr 2005, 19:52, edited 1 time in total.
1) Black Americans are twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure.
2) This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
3) Hypothesis: predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt. <-- hypothesis
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchersâ€™ hypothesis?
(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
- Blood pressure of those descended from Africa was low. Contradicts the findings of the researchers.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
- We can't be sure the serious health problem is high blood pressure. It could be kidney failure due to a high salt content diet.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
- Does not help the hypothesis by suggesting those from a traditional low salt diet will suffer high blood pressure when they move to a culture with a high salt diet.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
- Blood pressure of African tribe is low due to scarcity of salt (meaning low salt diet). This supports the hypothesis of the researchers
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not
- Weakens the statement
"A" shud be it.....W.black ppl who have high BP tend to have genes that r adapted for low salt env......so if we have a w.black ppl who has genes that r adapted to high salts then even high salt Western foods will not affect him/her...keeping the BP low.
if X (i.e. low salt genes) ----> Y (i.e. high BP due to salty food)
that follows........no Y (i.e.low BP) ------> no X (i.e. high salt genes).....that's what A is saying.