Basic english sentence structure
Darrel wrote a novel last year
Very sentence will have a subject.Commands will not have a visible subject,however,the subject[you] is understood.
Example:Run quickly!=You run quickly! (see more under Commands in Chapter 14.)
The subject can be a single noun,or a noun phrase which is a group of words ending with a noun.A noun phrase CANNOT begin with a preposition.(prepositions & prepositional phrases in Chapter 12)
We actors are a happy group.
The verb follows the subject when the sentence is declarative( a statement).Every sentence in English must have a verb.
The verb can be a single word or a verb phrase.A verb phrase contains one, or more, auxiliary verbs and one main verb. The main verb is always preceded by the auxiliary verbs.(see more about verb structure in Chapter 5)
Martha has been talking to her new friend. (the preposition is not part of the verb phrase)
Terry is visiting his aunt today.
The object may be a person or thing affected by the action described in the verb.It provide more information about the verb,usually consists of a noun,or noun phrase,and will usually follow the verb in a sentence relaying active voice.
A complement(object)CANNOT begin with a preposition.(more under prep & prepositional phrases in Chapter 12)A complement(object) answers the question what? or whom?
The ball hit Mike during the game last night.
A modifier tells the time,place, or manner of action.Not every sentence requires a modifier.
Prepositional phrases are commonly used as modifiers.
Examples of prepositional phrases:
Under the house after breakfast
Adverbs and adverbial phrases are also used as modifiers, or modifiers of time. A modifier of time will usually come last when more than one modifier is used.
Examples of adverbs and adverbial phrases:
Yesterday last semester quite awful
A modifier answers the question of where? When?or how?
Examples of modifiers:
She is earning her degree at Cornell University.
The cheetah was running quite fast.
John fell down the stairs yesterday.
EXERCISE & ANSWERS
Jerry / opened / his present.S V C2. Mr. Johnson / drinks / coffee / every morning.S V C M3. Birds / fly.S V4. The dog / chased / the cat / up the tree.S V C M5. The wind / blew / violently.S V M6. Jimmy / scored / a goal / at the soccer match / last Saturday.S V C M M7. They / ran / inside / quickly.S V M M8. Bill, George and Alice / bought / CDs / at the music store / today.S V C M M9. The barrel / rolled / down the hill.S V M10. Terry / is watching / television.S V C
Subject= noun / noun phrase not prepositional phrase(C12)
Subject is needed in a sentence,except for Commands,which is not visible and can be replaced with"you".
Verb= single word / a verb phrase(consists of main verb and several auxiliary verb(C5))
Object= noun / noun phrase not be with preposition(C12) answers the question of what,whom.
Modifier= prepositional phrases / adverbs or adverbial phrases which can also be commonly used as a modifier of time.In this case the modifier of time will usually come last.
Modifier answers the question of time,where,how. Modifiers are not necessary in a sentence.
“I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 kicks once, but I fear the man who has practiced one kick 10,000 times.”--Bruce Lee