By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 17 Jan 2017, 00:26

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Senior Manager
Affiliations: UWC
Joined: 09 May 2012
Posts: 399
GMAT 1: 620 Q42 V33
GMAT 2: 680 Q44 V38
GPA: 3.43
WE: Engineering (Entertainment and Sports)
Followers: 28

Kudos [?]: 1102 [4] , given: 100

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 May 2012, 04:35
4
KUDOS
28
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

5% (low)

Question Stats:

77% (02:15) correct 23% (01:15) wrong based on 2694 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
New!
Retired Moderator
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 3624
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Followers: 714

Kudos [?]: 5546 [12] , given: 321

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 May 2012, 08:02
12
KUDOS
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
A. and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be------ flew to be -- is bad usage; to be is not a verb. We need a past tense verb such as were to mark the plural subject planes. (For is used in the menaing of because)

B. earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were --- at a time needs when as the relative pronoun

C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were—at a time where is wrong

D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were—at a time in which is not proper - when is required; in addition so new such that is bad idiom.

E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

_________________

“Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb.
9884544509

Manager
Joined: 22 Apr 2011
Posts: 222
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 109 [2] , given: 18

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Aug 2012, 15:12
2
KUDOS
Quote:
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

if it is a past participle, should it be used without comma??
_________________

some people are successful, because they have been fortunate enough and some people earn success, because they have been determined.....

please press kudos if you like my post.... i am begging for kudos...lol

Manager
Joined: 18 Aug 2006
Posts: 118
Location: United States
WE: Consulting (Telecommunications)
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 49 [2] , given: 44

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Nov 2013, 06:11
2
KUDOS
suyash23n wrote:
Though i figured out that the OA is E, i was wondering if the grammatical error in option A is rectified, and the new answer choices are :

A- and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
E - earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Will we still eliminate Option A ? (may be just because it is wordy).

Need help!!

A is still wrong IMO.

A did X and Y. Here, X and Y should be independent; i.e Y cannot be describing X further.

However, the original sentence intends to give further information ( a modifier) about the awards won. So using a "and" conjunction distorts the meaning.
Retired Moderator
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 3624
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Followers: 714

Kudos [?]: 5546 [1] , given: 321

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Aug 2012, 21:38
1
KUDOS
Without the comma it will directly refer to the noun before. But even without comma, logically the past participle can only refer to the records, as it can not refer to any other meaningful noun. Also considering that GMAT isn’t fastidious about comma usage, E is acceptable, IMO
_________________

“Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb.
9884544509

Verbal Expert
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 2315
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
Followers: 352

Kudos [?]: 1467 [1] , given: 20

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Jun 2016, 00:12
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
banerjee06 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.
Also, even if we considered earned a modifier it is modifying the records.
So as far as my understanding goes if i were to pick the options basis of modifiers -ing vs -ed i would have taken earning instead of earned, and that as the answer key suggests would have been incorrect. What am I missing here??

Tagging the experts I know:sayantanc2k, mikemcgarry, egmat, carcass

Responding to a PM......
"Now my question is I used the following rules to identify whether the -ed form is a verb or a verb-ed modifier:
1. The subject should not be the doer of the verb-ed action (I read it from a separate post by e-gmat).

Kindly advise if this rule is the correct one to go by? If not what should I use as a rule to understand if the verb-ed form is a modifier or not."

The rule is correct as long as it is meant that the verb-ed modifier does not refer to the subject. A verb-ed structure can STILL be a modifier if the subject is the doer of the action, but in this case the verb-ed modifier would refer to not the subject, but some other noun in the sentence.

I would say, the folowing method is intuitive for some (for me as well) to identify whether verb-ed construction is a verb or a past participle:

1. Verb-ed structure has only two uses: Verb (simple past), Past participle.
2. FIRST task is to identify the main verb of the sentence. (in general, this is an excellent practice to solve SC questions, not just to identify the verb-ed modifier)
3. If it is not found, then the verb-ed could be the main verb.
4. If it is found, then too the verb-ed could be a second main verb , if it is added with a conjunction "and" / "but".
5. If a main verb is found and the verb-ed construction is NOT added by a conjunction, then it could be a participle.

The above is not as complicated as it may appear - the process is intuitive and naturally occurs while analysing - let us take option E in the question:

What is the main verb? "held"
Can "earned" be a second main verb? No, since there is no conjunction. Thus "earned" is a past participle.

Nonetheless as per the rule above, "earned " would not refer to the subject (JC), but to something else in the sentence (records).
Manager
Joined: 15 Apr 2013
Posts: 86
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, General Management
Schools: ISB '15
WE: Account Management (Other)
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 93 [0], given: 61

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Jul 2013, 20:19
While E here is the correct answer because other answers are obviously wrong for the reasons well explained here, I still feel the correct modifier that should be used is Present participle( Verb-ing). Use of Past participle with comma here illogically makes the entities a list and the sentence ambiguous.

Although E is the best among the given choices, I still feel it is not that good.
Intern
Joined: 05 Aug 2012
Posts: 42
Concentration: Technology, General Management
GMAT Date: 09-16-2013
GPA: 3.5
WE: Analyst (Consulting)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 28 [0], given: 11

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Sep 2013, 01:10
Though i figured out that the OA is E, i was wondering if the grammatical error in option A is rectified, and the new answer choices are :

A- and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
E - earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Will we still eliminate Option A ? (may be just because it is wordy).

Need help!!
_________________

Regards,
Suyash

I want to live in a world where emails are short, love letters are brave, and every "Thank you" note is scribbled by hand.
GO GREEN

Intern
Joined: 06 Nov 2012
Posts: 34
Location: India
Concentration: General Management
WE: Information Technology (Telecommunications)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 12 [0], given: 2

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

02 Oct 2013, 02:06
suyash23n wrote:
Though i figured out that the OA is E, i was wondering if the grammatical error in option A is rectified, and the new answer choices are :

A- and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
E - earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Will we still eliminate Option A ? (may be just because it is wordy).

Need help!!

I am no expert but I feel A is fine now . So here both A & C are fine .
I don't think A is wordy .
_________________

I do the very best I know how - the very best I can; and I mean to keep on doing so until the end -- Abraham Lincoln

Intern
Joined: 14 Nov 2012
Posts: 7
Location: India
Concentration: Marketing, General Management
GMAT Date: 12-06-2013
GPA: 3.52
WE: Sales (Manufacturing)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 31

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Nov 2013, 01:49
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Though i could figure out the best answer,E, i am not satisfied with the explanation OG13 has given for eleminating option B and C.
It says, " the word earning takes the pilot herself, not the records, as its subject. However, earning is close to the records, not toJacqueline Cochran, making this sentence hard to process."

But how can verb-ing modivier placed after clause preceded with comma, can modify noun/subject for the modified clause. As far as eGmat tmaterials on Verbing modifiers are concerned, the construction ---clause + , + verbing---smodifies the whole clause.

Can anyone validate the conflicting ideas? OG or Egmat... I expect Shraddha, Rajat, to pitch in.

Thnx

Anuj
Senior Manager
Joined: 08 Apr 2013
Posts: 295
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 22 [0], given: 27

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Nov 2013, 03:25
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

A
like "to do", "for sb/st to do" is used to show the purpose of main clause.
I earn money for you to learn english
in this choice we need to show an effect not a purpose. it is not logic to show purpose in this choice
B
so new for st WERE
is wrong idiom
C
"where" can not refer to "time"
D
"so...such that" is not idiomatic
_________________

If anyone in this gmat forum is in England,Britain, pls, email to me, (thanghnvn@gmail.com) . I have some questions and need your advise. Thank a lot.

Manager
Joined: 12 Jan 2013
Posts: 244
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 69 [0], given: 47

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Jan 2014, 00:43
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

the underline should 1) be in simple past and 2) modify speed records.. So A/B/C gone..

D: "in which" and "such that" are needlessly awkward and quite frankly, erroneous..

E uses the much more concise "when" and "that".. Thus, we go with E
Senior Manager
Joined: 06 Aug 2011
Posts: 405
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 190 [0], given: 82

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Feb 2014, 00:50
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was stillso new for many of the planes she flew to be ==> unidiomatic...after "So" need "THAT".
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were ==> same as choice A..
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were....Where?? its wrong..shud be when..
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were===> in which is wrong here..
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were..correct.. so that is idiomatic...and when is coorectly used..
_________________

Bole So Nehal.. Sat Siri Akal.. Waheguru ji help me to get 700+ score !

Intern
Joined: 22 Feb 2014
Posts: 1
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 4

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Feb 2014, 04:50
pavan2185 wrote:
While E here is the correct answer because other answers are obviously wrong for the reasons well explained here, I still feel the correct modifier that should be used is Present participle( Verb-ing). Use of Past participle with comma here illogically makes the entities a list and the sentence ambiguous.

Although E is the best among the given choices, I still feel it is not that good.

I agree the this idea! I'm confused by the past participle here. If the subject of the sentence is the pilot, so I would use "and she earned" to show a parallel construction, or use "earning them at a time" to show that the pilot is the one who did the thing, so I eliminate "E" at the first glance
Manager
Joined: 28 Jul 2013
Posts: 84
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 10 [0], given: 3

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 Feb 2014, 07:59
Cecelia219 wrote:
I'm confused by the past participle here. If the subject of the sentence is the pilot, so I would use "and she earned" to show a parallel construction, or use "earning them at a time" to show that the pilot is the one who did the thing, so I eliminate "E" at the first glance

I believe that the past participle "earned" here is modifying "records" (official national and international speed records), and not "pilot". In fact, if the intent was to use "earned" as a "verb", then there should have been an "and" before "earned" in E. Then "held" and "earned" would have been parallel.
GMAT Pill Representative
Joined: 14 Apr 2009
Posts: 2050
Location: New York, NY
Followers: 386

Kudos [?]: 1327 [0], given: 8

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Feb 2014, 10:29
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35
Director
Status: Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 17 Apr 2013
Posts: 635
Location: India
GMAT 1: 710 Q50 V36
GMAT 2: 750 Q51 V41
GMAT 3: 790 Q51 V49
GPA: 3.3
Followers: 67

Kudos [?]: 420 [0], given: 297

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Apr 2014, 06:30
daagh wrote:
A. and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be------ flew to be -- is bad usage; to be is not a verb. We need a past tense verb such as were to mark the plural subject planes. (For is used in the menaing of because)

B. earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were --- at a time needs when as the relative pronoun

C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were—at a time where is wrong

D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were—at a time in which is not proper - when is required; in addition so new such that is bad idiom.

E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

E was looking most suitable but I got confused as earned I found is an orphan verb with no Clause or Subject to envelope it. How to save myself from such traps?
_________________

Like my post Send me a Kudos It is a Good manner.
My Debrief: http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-score-750-and-750-i-moved-from-710-to-189016.html

Senior Manager
Joined: 15 Aug 2013
Posts: 328
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 53 [0], given: 23

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Apr 2014, 11:31
I narrowed it down to C and E and eliminated "c" because of "earning". I saw earning as a present tense verb while this happened in 1940 and it should refer to past test. Was I completely off in getting to the final answer?

I can see that the "where/when" split would have been a better indicator but I missed it during the split.
Senior Manager
Joined: 15 Aug 2013
Posts: 328
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 53 [0], given: 23

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Apr 2014, 08:09
Hi

Can someone explain if there is a split between "to be" vs. "were"?

Also, I split this between "earning" and "earned" -- earning is not a verb and it leaves everything after the comma a fragment. Is that correct reasoning to take out B and C?

In B AND C, since we don't have a coordinating conjunction "and"--is it safe to say that the information after the comma DOES NOT need to be an independent clause?
Manager
Joined: 13 Oct 2013
Posts: 137
Concentration: Strategy, Entrepreneurship
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 37 [0], given: 125

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 May 2014, 09:42
Hi There,

Option B and C starts with earning . here it looks to me earning is modifying records not pilot .I know B and C are wrong as" at a time " followed by wrong word.

But I do not understand , why all explanation says earning is modifying pilot not the records?

Thank you .

GMATPill wrote:
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35

_________________

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kindly press +1 Kudos if my post helped you in any way

Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen   [#permalink] 26 May 2014, 09:42

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 40 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
3 Pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen national records 6 18 Mar 2014, 11:19
4 By 1960, the pilot Rolph held sixteen official international 2 24 Nov 2013, 09:23
By the late 1940s, ENIAC, the first electronic digital 14 16 Aug 2009, 06:43
Since the 1940's the farms and ranches of the Great Plains 8 01 Aug 2007, 07:32
The network determined that seventeen commercials should be 6 28 Jul 2007, 10:05
Display posts from previous: Sort by