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# By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned

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By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned [#permalink]

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18 May 2010, 13:28
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By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned after an Ice Age glacier left an area, it is possible to establish an approximate date when a warmer climate developed. In one glacial area, it appears from the insect record that a warm climate developed immediately after the melting of the glacier. From the pollen record, however, it appears that the warm climate did not develop until long after the glacier disappeared.
Each one of the following, if true, helps to explain the apparent discrepancy EXCEPT:

(A) Cold-weather beetle fossils can be mistaken for those of beetles that live in warm climates.
(B) Warm-weather plants cannot establish themselves as quickly as can beetles in a new environment.
(C) Beetles can survive in a relatively barren postglacial area by scavenging.
(D) Since planes spread unevenly in a new climate, researchers can mistake gaps in the pollen record as evidence of no new overall growth.
(E) Beetles are among the oldest insect species and are much older then many warm-weather plants.

I cant choose among B, C and E. For me, they have nothing to do with the passage so they would be correct.
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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18 May 2010, 13:39
IMHO C
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18 May 2010, 13:46
nverma wrote:
IMHO C

Please explain.
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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18 May 2010, 20:32
IMO E...This is the only answer that has nothing to do with explaning the discrepancy.
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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18 May 2010, 23:25
noboru wrote:
nverma wrote:
IMHO C

Please explain.

By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned after an Ice Age glacier left an area, it is possible to establish an approximate date when a warmer climate developed. In one glacial area, it appears from the insect record that a warm climate developed immediately after the melting of the glacier. From the pollen record, however, it appears that the warm climate did not develop until long after the glacier disappeared.
Each one of the following, if true, helps to explain the apparent discrepancy EXCEPT:

(A) Cold-weather beetle fossils can be mistaken for those of beetles that live in warm climates. >>> If the beetles are actually "warm weather" Beatles..weather was warm >> also the pollen shows warm weather.
(B) Warm-weather plants cannot establish themselves as quickly as can beetles in a new environment. >>> So even the weather immediately became warm..this can't be shown with the help of Pollen fossils
(C) Beetles can survive in a relatively barren post glacial area by scavenging.>>> Doesn't say anything about weather patterns. >>> Correct
(D) Since planes spread unevenly in a new climate, researchers can mistake gaps in the pollen record as evidence of no new overall growth. >>> If the pollen pattern is not complete...It weaken the conclusion derived using pollen fossils..
(E) Beetles are among the oldest insect species and are much older then many warm-weather plants.>>> If Beatles were already present and the warm weather plants (as a species) came later on...then it's difficult to conclude the pattern on the basis of Pollens..
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18 May 2010, 23:42
Socker121314 wrote:
IMO E...This is the only answer that has nothing to do with explaning the discrepancy.

and what do B and C have to do with the whole thing?
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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18 May 2010, 23:45
nverma wrote:
noboru wrote:
nverma wrote:
IMHO C

Please explain.

By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned after an Ice Age glacier left an area, it is possible to establish an approximate date when a warmer climate developed. In one glacial area, it appears from the insect record that a warm climate developed immediately after the melting of the glacier. From the pollen record, however, it appears that the warm climate did not develop until long after the glacier disappeared.
Each one of the following, if true, helps to explain the apparent discrepancy EXCEPT:

(A) Cold-weather beetle fossils can be mistaken for those of beetles that live in warm climates. >>> If the beetles are actually "warm weather" Beatles..weather was warm >> also the pollen shows warm weather.
(B) Warm-weather plants cannot establish themselves as quickly as can beetles in a new environment. >>> So even the weather immediately became warm..this can't be shown with the help of Pollen fossils
(C) Beetles can survive in a relatively barren post glacial area by scavenging.>>> Doesn't say anything about weather patterns. >>> Correct
(D) Since planes spread unevenly in a new climate, researchers can mistake gaps in the pollen record as evidence of no new overall growth. >>> If the pollen pattern is not complete...It weaken the conclusion derived using pollen fossils..
(E) Beetles are among the oldest insect species and are much older then many warm-weather plants.>>> If Beatles were already present and the warm weather plants (as a species) came later on...then it's difficult to conclude the pattern on the basis of Pollens..

Sorry, C is not the OA.
Any more takers?
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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19 May 2010, 02:21
I was completely confused with the question and then I noticed that it is an EXCEPT question ...what a

Anyway...I think D should be the answer because all other answer somehow try to explain the existence or plant/beetle at different times ....

A. The beetle fossils were actually from cold weather species. So the wrong sample would result in a paradox.
B. It states that beetles existed in colder weather when plants could not. So obviously the samples are from different time.
C. Beetles could exist the postglacial period by scavenging, but plants did not. Again samples from two different period.
D. YES. The pollen data may not be complete. If it were complete it would favor a different conclusion (evidence of no new overall growth), which is not mentioned anywhere in the text.
E. Since beetles are the oldest species, they could, for example, belong to another glacial period. And that would result in different samples.
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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19 May 2010, 02:27
OA is E (Source: 1000 CR -- Test 6 Q12)

I thought E is a sure explanation for the paradox.
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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19 May 2010, 02:47
it has o be E
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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19 May 2010, 04:25
It will be nice to have some explanation as well.
dixitraghav wrote:
it has o be E
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19 May 2010, 04:28
Indien wrote:
I was completely confused with the question and then I noticed that it is an EXCEPT question ...what a

Anyway...I think D should be the answer because all other answer somehow try to explain the existence or plant/beetle at different times ....

A. The beetle fossils were actually from cold weather species. So the wrong sample would result in a paradox.
B. It states that beetles existed in colder weather when plants could not. So obviously the samples are from different time.
C. Beetles could exist the postglacial period by scavenging, but plants did not. Again samples from two different period.
D. YES. The pollen data may not be complete. If it were complete it would favor a different conclusion (evidence of no new overall growth), which is not mentioned anywhere in the text.
E. Since beetles are the oldest species, they could, for example, belong to another glacial period. And that would result in different samples.

Not mentioned in the argument. I think we need a very good reason to reject C.
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Re: pollen and beetles [#permalink]

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19 May 2010, 05:59
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Indien wrote:
It will be nice to have some explanation as well.

After initially thinking C, then reading down until it was revealed to be E, here's how I break it down:

(A) Cold-weather beetle fossils can be mistaken for those of beetles that live in warm climates. This is pretty simple. Messing up which fossils you recovered would certainly explain the discrepancy.

(B) Warm-weather plants cannot establish themselves as quickly as can beetles in a new environment. If this were the case, then the glacier melts, beetles move in, but the pollen doesn't come around until some time later since the plants suck at getting establishing, creating the illusion that the warm period started later if you go by pollen fossils alone.

(C) Beetles can survive in a relatively barren postglacial area by scavenging. At first this seemed trivial, but you have to keep in mind that WE DON'T KNOW WHEN THE WARM PERIOD ACTUALLY BEGAN. In this scenario, the glacier melts and we get a cold period for X number of years, POPULATED with beetles. Don't be thrown off by the supposed existence of cold-weather and warm-weather beetles from a), that has nothing to do with this answer. So when the warm period comes, so do the plants. We get fossils from tough beetles in the cold period (which to scientists, seems to imply a warm period) and then we get pollen fossils sometime later, which also implies that that's when the warm period started.

(D) Since planes spread unevenly in a new climate, researchers can mistake gaps in the pollen record as evidence of no new overall growth. This straight up says that researchers can screw up, pretty easy to eliminate.

(E) Beetles are among the oldest insect species and are much older then many warm-weather plants. This is the answer because it has nothing to do with the question. It's just a fact out of an encyclopedia. All it might imply is that fossil dating using beetles and pollen might not work past a certain prehistoric date... but does nothing to explain the discrepancy.
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Re: By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned [#permalink]

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16 May 2015, 04:25
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Re: By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned [#permalink]

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27 May 2016, 17:38
Still confused between C and E.
E says beetles are the oldest species. So cant we say that the beetles appeared as soon as the glacier started melting and since pollens came later, cant we say that pollens appeared at a later time when the glacier had disappeared?
Plz explain
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Re: By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned [#permalink]

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28 May 2016, 02:06
it has to be E. By E, it means that Beetles were in existence before flowers, not that they live a longer life than flowers. So E should be the OA. I also want request that OA should be placed during posting a thread as lots of responses can baffle about his own options
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Re: By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned [#permalink]

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29 May 2016, 22:46
Moderators, please add OA to the question. Thanks!
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Re: By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned [#permalink]

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30 May 2016, 07:42
The question here is to find out a statement that will not resolve the paradox stated in the stimuli.

(A) Cold-weather beetle fossils can be mistaken for those of beetles that live in warm climates - This would resolve the paradox in a way that the researcher by mistake considered a cold weather beetle fossil while the inference from pollen fossil is correct. Considering that this will resolve the paradox, this is not the right answer.
(B) Warm-weather plants cannot establish themselves as quickly as can beetles in a new environment. - this will resolve the paradox in a way that the pollen died before the actual warm weather started so there is a possibility that it died when the climate was already ice-cold thereby validating the beetle fossil as the right one. this too resolves the paradox. Hence incorrect answer
(C) Beetles can survive in a relatively barren post glacial area by scavenging - Similar to B gives an implied meaning that either of the fossil is incorrect especially the plant would have died due to barren climate and hence unable to detect onset of warmer climate. Resolves the paradox hence wrong answer.
(D) Since planes spread unevenly in a new climate, researchers can mistake gaps in the pollen record as evidence of no new overall growth -Resolves the paradox by making an providing a fact on planes spreading evenly and assuming mistake on part of researchers hence this too is wrong.
(E) Beetles are among the oldest insect species and are much older then many warm-weather plants. - if you read the Stimulus properly in tandem with this statement, there is nothing in this statement to strengthen to the argument or resolve the paradox. This statement merely speaks about beetles being an older organism than warm-weather plants which does not strengthen the stimulus or resolve the paradox therein thereby making this the correct answer

Correct Answer Must be (E)\
Re: By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned   [#permalink] 30 May 2016, 07:42
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