By offering lower prices and a menu of personal : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 21 Jan 2017, 14:04

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# By offering lower prices and a menu of personal

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 07 Dec 2011
Posts: 104
Location: India
GMAT Date: 07-30-2012
GPA: 2.66
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 40

Kudos [?]: 453 [3] , given: 116

### Show Tags

08 Jul 2012, 02:13
3
KUDOS
7
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

5% (low)

Question Stats:

78% (01:51) correct 22% (01:00) wrong based on 1098 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

By offering lower prices and a menu of personal communications options, such as caller identification and voice mail, the new telecommunications company has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced them to offer competitive prices.

(A) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced them
(B) has not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also forced them
(C) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced these companies
(D) not only has captured customers from other phone companies but also these companies have been forced
(E) not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also has forced them
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

_________________

Last edited by walker on 21 Apr 2016, 08:38, edited 2 times in total.
Underlined
If you have any questions
New!
Manager
Joined: 14 Mar 2011
Posts: 87
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 41 [0], given: 21

### Show Tags

08 Jul 2012, 09:22
relative noun concept-them refer to customers or other phone companies so

A, B and E- out

out D and C - C look more logical and precise
Manager
Joined: 01 Mar 2009
Posts: 194
Location: United States
Concentration: Strategy, Technology
GMAT 1: 660 Q47 V34
GMAT 2: 680 Q46 V38
GPA: 3.2
WE: Consulting (Computer Software)
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 43 [0], given: 23

### Show Tags

08 Jul 2012, 09:53
I agree with jagdeep. C is the correct answer. "Them" provides an ambiguous reference. Adding "These companies" avoid the ambigous reference and thus makes the sentence grammatically correct.

D is incorrect because of the placement of "Has". Has should be before "not only".
BSchool Forum Moderator
Status: Flying over the cloud!
Joined: 16 Aug 2011
Posts: 912
Location: Viet Nam
GMAT Date: 06-06-2014
GPA: 3.07
Followers: 73

Kudos [?]: 603 [0], given: 44

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2012, 23:09
THEM in this sentence makes ambiguous, it could refer to customers and other phone companies. So, choice A, B, and E are out.

Choice D is wrong because of parallelism error. Therefore, the final choice is C.
_________________

Rules for posting in verbal gmat forum, read it before posting anything in verbal forum
Giving me + 1 kudos if my post is valuable with you

The more you like my post, the more you share to other's need

CR: Focus of the Week: Must be True Question

Intern
Joined: 14 Jan 2013
Posts: 25
Location: India
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 9 [0], given: 43

### Show Tags

10 May 2013, 09:56
Hi,

Two questions. Pronoun, them is closer to companies than customers, so I think them properly refers to the companies? If not, could you please correct me.

Is there some kind of rule to identify the antecedent of a pronoun other the nearest noun to a pronoun? Please provide a reference link to the explanation.

Also, there is no comma before the conjunction but; Is this fine?
Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 15 Jun 2012
Posts: 1153
Location: United States
Followers: 259

Kudos [?]: 2869 [4] , given: 123

### Show Tags

10 May 2013, 15:47
4
KUDOS
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
kiranck007 wrote:
Hi,

Two questions. Pronoun, them is closer to companies than customers, so I think them properly refers to the companies? If not, could you please correct me.

Hi kiranck007

The syntax is: has not only captured X ....., but also forced Y..............
captured // forced
X should be // Y
Hence, "them" does not modify the nearest noun - "customers"
To solve this problem, you repeat the noun/noun phrase you want to mention.

Quote:
Is there some kind of rule to identify the antecedent of a pronoun other the nearest noun to a pronoun? Please provide a reference link to the explanation.

Also, there is no comma before the conjunction but; Is this fine?

* which (relative clause) ==> always modifies a preceding noun or noun phrase
* that (relative clause) ==> always modifies a preceding noun or noun phrase
* V+ing modifier without a comma ==> always modifies a preceding noun or noun phrase
* V+ed modifier ==> always modifies a preceding noun or noun phrase

Hope it helps.
_________________

Please +1 KUDO if my post helps. Thank you.

"Designing cars consumes you; it has a hold on your spirit which is incredibly powerful. It's not something you can do part time, you have do it with all your heart and soul or you're going to get it wrong."

Chris Bangle - Former BMW Chief of Design.

Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 945
Followers: 302

Kudos [?]: 823 [4] , given: 25

### Show Tags

10 May 2013, 20:43
4
KUDOS
Expert's post
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
There is no absolute rule for identifying the antecedent. "Them" can refer to any plural noun in the sentence, as long as "they," "them," or "their" hasn't already been used to refer to some other plural noun. However, it's important to use sentence structure and whatever you can gather of the author's intent to determine the correct antecedent. The GMAT doesn't test pronoun ambiguity much, but since we have a choice in this case to replace the unclear "them" with the actual noun, it's wise to do so.

As for the word but, it does not necessarily require a comma. You definitely use a comma if it's joining two independent clauses:

I'm enjoying the party, but I have to leave now.

However, there are many other cases where we don't need one:

The robot has a small but powerful engine.
All but one of the guests arrived late.
I aced the verbal section but timed out on the quant.

Or, as we see here . ..

She has not only written three bestselling novels but also developed fifteen important patents.

Note that the use of "has not only" vs. "not only has" cannot be decided in isolation. Either construction could work. "Not only . . . but also" is a parallelism indicator, so we can use "has" afterward as long as it is parallel. In other words, we can say "She has not only X but also Y" or "She not only HAS X but also HAS Y." We just can't say "She not only HAS X but also Y." Having said that, I prefer the usage in the correct answer. There's not much reason to use "has" twice.
_________________

Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York

Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 10537
Followers: 919

Kudos [?]: 203 [1] , given: 0

### Show Tags

31 May 2014, 21:13
1
KUDOS
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
Intern
Joined: 08 Oct 2014
Posts: 19
Location: Turkmenistan
GMAT 1: 600 Q41 V31
WE: Supply Chain Management (Energy and Utilities)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 49

### Show Tags

07 Aug 2015, 06:09
DmitryFarber wrote:
There is no absolute rule for identifying the antecedent. "Them" can refer to any plural noun in the sentence, as long as "they," "them," or "their" hasn't already been used to refer to some other plural noun. However, it's important to use sentence structure and whatever you can gather of the author's intent to determine the correct antecedent. The GMAT doesn't test pronoun ambiguity much, but since we have a choice in this case to replace the unclear "them" with the actual noun, it's wise to do so.

As for the word but, it does not necessarily require a comma. You definitely use a comma if it's joining two independent clauses:

I'm enjoying the party, but I have to leave now.

However, there are many other cases where we don't need one:

The robot has a small but powerful engine.
All but one of the guests arrived late.
I aced the verbal section but timed out on the quant.

Or, as we see here . ..

She has not only written three bestselling novels but also developed fifteen important patents.

Note that the use of "has not only" vs. "not only has" cannot be decided in isolation. Either construction could work. "Not only . . . but also" is a parallelism indicator, so we can use "has" afterward as long as it is parallel. In other words, we can say "She has not only X but also Y" or "She not only HAS X but also HAS Y." We just can't say "She not only HAS X but also Y." Having said that, I prefer the usage in the correct answer. There's not much reason to use "has" twice.

Hello Dmitry,
Thank you for your nice explanation, but I still have a question. I think that "them" logically refers to companies rather than customers, since customers cannot offer competetive prices. I've learned that pronouns must have only one logical antecedent and I think "them" has only one logical antecedent in the above sentence. Can you please give your comments on this point? Thank you, Shohrat.
Manager
Joined: 09 Feb 2015
Posts: 184
Location: India
Concentration: Social Entrepreneurship, General Management
GMAT 1: 690 Q49 V34
GPA: 2.8
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 18 [0], given: 136

### Show Tags

05 Nov 2015, 00:24
shohrat6383 wrote:
DmitryFarber wrote:
There is no absolute rule for identifying the antecedent. "Them" can refer to any plural noun in the sentence, as long as "they," "them," or "their" hasn't already been used to refer to some other plural noun. However, it's important to use sentence structure and whatever you can gather of the author's intent to determine the correct antecedent. The GMAT doesn't test pronoun ambiguity much, but since we have a choice in this case to replace the unclear "them" with the actual noun, it's wise to do so.

As for the word but, it does not necessarily require a comma. You definitely use a comma if it's joining two independent clauses:

I'm enjoying the party, but I have to leave now.

However, there are many other cases where we don't need one:

The robot has a small but powerful engine.
All but one of the guests arrived late.
I aced the verbal section but timed out on the quant.

Or, as we see here . ..

She has not only written three bestselling novels but also developed fifteen important patents.

Note that the use of "has not only" vs. "not only has" cannot be decided in isolation. Either construction could work. "Not only . . . but also" is a parallelism indicator, so we can use "has" afterward as long as it is parallel. In other words, we can say "She has not only X but also Y" or "She not only HAS X but also HAS Y." We just can't say "She not only HAS X but also Y." Having said that, I prefer the usage in the correct answer. There's not much reason to use "has" twice.

Hello Dmitry,
Thank you for your nice explanation, but I still have a question. I think that "them" logically refers to companies rather than customers, since customers cannot offer competetive prices. I've learned that pronouns must have only one logical antecedent and I think "them" has only one logical antecedent in the above sentence. Can you please give your comments on this point? Thank you, Shohrat.

agree with Shohrat,them can logically refer to Companies hence A is right according to me.
daagh?
Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 945
Followers: 302

Kudos [?]: 823 [1] , given: 25

### Show Tags

05 Nov 2015, 00:48
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Sorry I missed the earlier post.

Yes, "them" logically refers to "companies." We know that's the intended meaning, in part because it's stated clearly in the correct answer and in part because it's the only interpretation that makes sense. (How would we force customers to offer competitive prices?) However, if you get in the habit of working with the sentence to make the meaning clear, you will find yourself approving of many answers that turn out to be wrong. It's important to look at what the author is doing structurally.

Here we have the structure "not only captured customers . . . but also forced them." Companies are only mentioned in a modifier. This structure naturally pushes us toward seeing "them" as customers, even though that interpretation makes no sense. C fixes the problem, so why not take the fix? Note that there is no other difference between A and C.

goforgmat, I would encourage you to "buy in" to the GMAT's reasoning. Instead of saying "A is right," say "I don't see what is wrong with A." You are learning to play their game, and accepting the right answers is an important part of that. One thing that this problem teaches us is that in GMAT SC, clarity is favored over brevity. That's important to know!
_________________

Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York

Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Senior Manager
Joined: 23 Feb 2015
Posts: 271
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 104

### Show Tags

14 Feb 2016, 11:00
hi Expert,

it seems that THEM is indicating CUSTOMERS; but THEM should be used instead of COMPANIES to make the meaning legitimate...but my question is WHY ONE COMPANY (FIRST COMPANY) FORCED OTHER COMPANIES (SECOND COMPANY) TO OFFER COMPETITIVE PRICE?? IS THE FIRST COMPANY USED HERE as a customer? is the duty of first company to force the other COMPANY to offer a competitive price?? basically, when '''someone''' force somebody, it means that ''someone'' want to have some benefits from somebody. so my question is: is the first company waiting to have benefit or offer from other company?? if a company is waiting here to get some benefit or offer from other company, WHY THE WORD ''CUSTOMERS'' IS USED HERE?? I think CUSTOMER (NOT the COMPANY) should force the other COMPANY to have the offer.Thanks to read my message...
_________________

“The heights by great men reached and kept were not attained in sudden flight but, they while their companions slept, they were toiling upwards in the night.”

Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 945
Followers: 302

Kudos [?]: 823 [0], given: 25

### Show Tags

16 Feb 2016, 13:01
iMyself,

It helps to include the modifier in this analysis: "By offering lower prices . . . the new telecommunications company . . . forced these companies to offer lower prices."

So the new company came in with lower prices. By doing this, they forced the other companies to offer lower prices in order to compete. Of course, they didn't do this directly. No one showed up at the old companies' doors saying "Lower your prices!" Rather, this happened by market pressure. If the companies didn't lower their prices, they would probably lose a lot of customers!

The point, then, is not so much that the new company wanted the benefit of the lower prices. It's that their action (offering lower prices) forced this change on the other companies. It's certainly beyond the scope of SC, but we could also say that this benefited the first company. If these lower prices slashed the competition's profit margins, that may well prove beneficial for the new company.
_________________

Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York

Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Re: By offering lower prices and a menu of personal   [#permalink] 16 Feb 2016, 13:01
Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
20 In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of 16 28 Mar 2014, 02:14
4 The creation of an independent treasury, establishing lower 11 27 Sep 2011, 07:21
For businesses in the technology sector, a lower percentage 3 27 Sep 2008, 02:51
By offering lower prices and a menu of personal 4 08 Apr 2008, 01:31
SC-Lower paid workers 7 24 Jun 2007, 20:12
Display posts from previous: Sort by