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# Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the

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Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 10:23
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Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 10:27
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Concept tested: Parallelism, Pronouns, SV agreement.
Difficulty level: High
Illustration:The main subjects in the underlined portion are the three language words which need
a plural verb.
This instantly eliminates A and B which contain singular verb.
D uses the “having been construction” which is not applicable here (see tip below)
E uses redundant construction by using “added” after the phrase “in addition”.

Tip: The “having been” or “having verb-ed” construction is used to indicate
implications. This can be illustrated with examples.

Having failed in his final exam, John did not get promoted.
Having been ill for a couple of weeks, James could not go attend his music classes.

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 22:34
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This is an inversed clause. What have been added are words belonging to some languages and hence the subject of the sub-clause is plural; A and B are gone. C is the correct answer using a plural verb - -have been added --. D is wrong because of the redundant use of the pronoun it. Even without the pronoun, the sentence keeps the intent intact. E is gone because of the present tense verb are added gives an inkling of something that is being done routinely. Further - and, in addition – is redundancy
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2012, 02:58
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yashii9 wrote:
ankit0411 wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words - This expresses passive voice, eliminate it.
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words - very awkward , doesn't really make sense.
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added - this surely makes sense and is better than B ; English, Spanish and Italian words have been added to French language.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it - having been added is incorrect.
(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added - This seems to show that the words are added, and are independent of the French language.

u cant eliminate A for passive construction, c is also in passive construction.

A has incorrect use of grammar.
to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words

Yes your right, thanks for correcting. it should use HAVE and not HAS . SVA error
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 10:47
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Rahul - Subject in a sentence is person, place or thing that is doing something while object is the one on which the action is being taken.
The easiest way to identify the subject is to first identify the verb and then see who or what is working on the verb and you will get your answer.

I hope this answers your question. Let me know if you are still not clear.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 20:33
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rahulsn84 wrote:
IndianExpress wrote:
Rahul - Subject in a sentence is person, place or thing that is doing something while object is the one on which the action is being taken.
The easiest way to identify the subject is to first identify the verb and then see who or what is working on the verb and you will get your answer.

I hope this answers your question. Let me know if you are still not clear.

Thanks for the reply. Please find my way of thinking below and why I thought that the subject is singular and should be followed by "has". Please let me know where I went wrong.

Blue = Subject and Red = Verb below
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians
who migrated there in 1755;
their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

So from above language is singular above and should be followed by has isnt it?

We have an additional SV pair in the last clause (as per ur break down analysis). U need to break that and correct it.
their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

So in the last clause Subject is plural and verb should be have.
Hope it helps
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 23:30
souvik101990 wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words - This expresses passive voice, eliminate it.
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words - very awkward , doesn't really make sense.
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added - this surely makes sense and is better than B ; English, Spanish and Italian words have been added to French language.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it - having been added is incorrect.
(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added - This seems to show that the words are added, and are independent of the French language.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2012, 00:40
ankit0411 wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words - This expresses passive voice, eliminate it.
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words - very awkward , doesn't really make sense.
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added - this surely makes sense and is better than B ; English, Spanish and Italian words have been added to French language.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it - having been added is incorrect.
(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added - This seems to show that the words are added, and are independent of the French language.

u cant eliminate A for passive construction, c is also in passive construction.

A has incorrect use of grammar.
to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2012, 05:51
'words' is plural and hence needs 'have' to go with it . Option C is the only one which uses 'have' and maintains the structure of the original sentence .
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2012, 03:10
Concept tested: Parallelism, Pronouns, SV agreement.
Difficulty level: High
Illustration:The main subjects in the underlined portion are the three language words which need
a plural verb.
This instantly eliminates A and B which contain singular verb.
D uses the “having been construction” which is not applicable here (see tip below)
E uses redundant construction by using “added” after the phrase “in addition”.

Tip: The “having been” or “having verb-ed” construction is used to indicate
implications. This can be illustrated with examples.

Having failed in his final exam, John did not get promoted.
Having been ill for a couple of weeks, James could not go attend his music classes.

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 07:26
I have a query why is "seventeenth-century French" not the subject here?
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 11:06
there would be a general confusion here while marking the answer choice if one were to abide by the "be is unacceptable on the GMAT" thing..
great question though..
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 20:24
IndianExpress wrote:
Rahul - Subject in a sentence is person, place or thing that is doing something while object is the one on which the action is being taken.
The easiest way to identify the subject is to first identify the verb and then see who or what is working on the verb and you will get your answer.

I hope this answers your question. Let me know if you are still not clear.

Thanks for the reply. Please find my way of thinking below and why I thought that the subject is singular and should be followed by "has". Please let me know where I went wrong.

Blue = Subject and Red = Verb below
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians
who migrated there in 1755;
their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

So from above language is singular above and should be followed by has isnt it?
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 20:54
SOURH7WK wrote:
rahulsn84 wrote:
IndianExpress wrote:
Rahul - Subject in a sentence is person, place or thing that is doing something while object is the one on which the action is being taken.
The easiest way to identify the subject is to first identify the verb and then see who or what is working on the verb and you will get your answer.

I hope this answers your question. Let me know if you are still not clear.

Thanks for the reply. Please find my way of thinking below and why I thought that the subject is singular and should be followed by "has". Please let me know where I went wrong.

Blue = Subject and Red = Verb below
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians
who migrated there in 1755;
their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

So from above language is singular above and should be followed by has isnt it?

We have an additional SV pair in the last clause (as per ur break down analysis). U need to break that and correct it.

their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

So in the last clause Subject is plural and verb should be have.
Hope it helps

Yes I was careless to miss the last subordinate clause. Thanks for the correction,it makes sense now.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 21:34
A is incorrect because of the verb does not agree with the subject in number – “has been” with the plural “English, Spanish and Italian words”
B is incorrect because “added to” does not fit here.
D- usage of “Having been” is not needed
E- changes the overall meaning and the verb tense.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2012, 00:42
souvik101990 wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words ( Has been added / redundant /complicated /eliminated)

(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words ( added to which is / is singular/ unclear /eliminated)

(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added ( correct)

(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it ( having been / tense stupid/ eliminate)

( and , in addition , meaning changed/ eliminate)

I follow POE . I look at options and eliminate . Not so good at grammar to give lengthy explanations.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2012, 06:53
+1 for C.

Thanks guys for clearing the subject issue here, I also had a small doubt though chose C only.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2012, 23:04
(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added

Is the use of which correct in all the above options? If yes then what is which referring to?
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2012, 11:40
daagh wrote:
This is an inversed clause. What have been added are words belonging to some languages and hence the subject of the sub-clause is plural; A and B are gone. C is the correct answer using a plural verb - -have been added --. D is wrong because of the redundant use of the pronoun it. Even without the pronoun, the sentence keeps the intent intact. E is gone because of the present tense verb are added gives an inkling of something that is being done routinely. Further - and, in addition – is redundancy

Exxcellent explanation i would just add one more error in E i.e. In addition to X,y and z shouls have singular verb not plural
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2012, 19:49
(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added

Is the use of which correct in all the above options? If yes then what is which referring to?

Hi there,

The relative pronoun "which" correctly refers to "seventeenth-century" French as this is the closest noun to this relative pronoun modifier. It is French to which many words from different languages have been added. Hence, there is no ambiguity in the reference of "which".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the   [#permalink] 13 Dec 2012, 19:49

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