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Can some point me to all various usage of words - that and

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Can some point me to all various usage of words - that and [#permalink] New post 02 Feb 2010, 11:39
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Can some point me to all various usage of words - that and it ?

I think, these words are used as -
1. Pronoun
2. restrictive cause(modifier)

Any thing else ?
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Re: Use of "that" and "it" in SC [#permalink] New post 03 Feb 2010, 16:15
As far as I'm aware, it always functions as a pronoun.

That can be a few different things:

1. Restrictive relative clause modifier (There's the goose that lays the golden egg).
2. Demonstrative adjective (Please grab me that watermelon).
3. Demonstrative pronoun (I didn't mean that!).
4. Finite that-clause, in which the that is usually optional (I believe that everyone should have a puppy; the data show that global temperatures are rising).

The last one really doesn't have a textbook name as far as I can find. Does anyone know?
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Re: Use of "that" and "it" in SC [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2010, 13:57
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euxeno wrote:
4. Finite that-clause, in which the that is usually optional (I believe that everyone should have a puppy; the data show that global temperatures are rising).

The last one really doesn't have a textbook name as far as I can find. Does anyone know?

I'm also not sure whether there's a name for #4, although it's likely one exists. The "that" serves to create a noun phrase, which itself is the object of the main verb. In other words, "I believe something" and the something is "everyone should have a puppy." You'll know you're dealing with an example of this when "that" follows a verb immediately and another subject/verb pair follow.

I'll throw in one more:

#5 Subjunctive mood: Our boss suggested that Larry attend the meeting.

This usage is similar to #4--"that" follows a verb immediately, and "Our boss suggested something."

The difference is that "Larry attend" is not a normal subject/verb pair (note that, on its own, we'd say "Larry attends a meeting." The verb in this "that" clause is hypothetical (our boss just wants Larry to attend, but he hasn't yet, and in fact may not), so it gets a special form: the infinitive (to attend) minus the "to."

For #5, the GMAT requires the "that" even though many people omit it in speech.
For #4, the GMAT seems to prefer to include the "that," also.
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Re: Use of "that" and "it" in SC [#permalink] New post 06 Feb 2010, 08:25
Thank you Guys !
SC is my weakest area and i'm trying to get a handle on such basic concepts. The explanations were very helpful.
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Re: Use of "that" and "it" in SC [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2010, 09:14
guys, i am slightly confused.

in the below example -
1. Restrictive relative clause modifier (There's the goose that lays the golden egg).

Can we change the above sentence to say -

There's the goose laying the golden egg

Basically, can we replace that lays with laying and maintain the same meaning ?
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Re: Use of "that" and "it" in SC [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2010, 10:35
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Fair question...

It does not mean the same thing. There are two key differences between them.

1) by using that to introduce the relative clause, we make it clear that we're talking about the one-and-only goose with the ability to lay golden eggs. If we take that away, or replace it with which, we're now only referring to one goose which happens to lay golden eggs, saying nothing of the fact that other geese can't lay golden eggs. That's the gist of the difference between restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses.

2) by changing the verb from lays to laying, it changes the timing of the egg laying. That lays communicates that the goose can lay golden eggs, but that sentence doesn't tell us when that goose will lay any of those golden eggs. Laying communicates a progressive action, one that is currently taking place, so the goose is laying the egg as we speak, right in front of our eyes!
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Re: Use of "that" and "it" in SC [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2010, 12:57
I have a question realted to # 2 -

I think laying is an participle. Since participle do not decide the actual time that event occurs, is i fair to say that the event(laying of eggs) is happeing right now in front of our eyes ?

Please correct me if i am wrong.
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Re: Use of "that" and "it" in SC [#permalink] New post 08 Feb 2010, 12:30
ms wrote:
participle do not decide the actual time that event occurs


On the contrary, participles are one of the principle ways to indicate timing.

Indeed, laying is a participle--a present progressive participle, which indicates a current action.
Re: Use of "that" and "it" in SC   [#permalink] 08 Feb 2010, 12:30
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