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15 Jan 2010, 01:01
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Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs. The flawed reasoning in which one of the following arguments most closely parallels the flawed reasoning in the candidate's argument? A. The government enforces the speed limit on freeways much more closely than on tollways. But many more people die each year in auto accidents on freeways than die on auto accidents on tollways. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from enforcement of speed limits on freeways to enforcement of speed limits on tollways. B. A certain professional musician spends several times as many hours practicing guitar as she spends practicing saxophone. But she is hired much more often to play saxophone than to play guitar, so she would increase her number of playing engagements by spending less time practicing guitar and more time practicing saxophone. C. Automobiles burn more gas per minute on highways than on residential streets. But they get fewer miles per gallon on residential streets. Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets and more on highways. D. The local swim team spends many more hours practicing the backstroke than it spends practicing the breaststroke. But the team's lap time for the breaststroke are much better than its times for the backstroke, so the team would win more swim meets if it spent less time practicing the backstroke and more time practicing the breaststroke. E. Banks have higher profit margin on loans that have a higher interest rate than on loans that have a low interest rate. But borrowers are willing to borrow larger sums at low rates than at high rates. Therefore, bankds would be more profitable if they gave more loans at low rates and fewer loans at high rates. Senior Manager Joined: 21 Dec 2009 Posts: 268 Location: India Followers: 10 Kudos [?]: 189 [0], given: 25 Re: The government spends$500 million more each year [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2010, 13:03
IMO A. OA pls
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SD

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15 Jan 2010, 13:15
Guys I am extremely weak in this kind of questions... can somebody explain how to approach this kind of questions?
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SD

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Kudos [?]: 333 [1] , given: 47

Re: The government spends $500 million more each year [#permalink] ### Show Tags 16 Jan 2010, 12:20 1 This post received KUDOS joemama142000 wrote: Candidate: The government spends$500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs.

The flawed reasoning in which one of the following arguments most closely parallels the flawed reasoning in the candidate's argument?

A. The government enforces the speed limit on freeways much more closely than on tollways. But many more people die each year in auto accidents on freeways than die on auto accidents on tollways. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from enforcement of speed limits on freeways to enforcement of speed limits on tollways.

B. A certain professional musician spends several times as many hours practicing guitar as she spends practicing saxophone. But she is hired much more often to play saxophone than to play guitar, so she would increase her number of playing engagements by spending less time practicing guitar and more time practicing saxophone.

C. Automobiles burn more gas per minute on highways than on residential streets. But they get fewer miles per gallon on residential streets. Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets and more on highways.

D. The local swim team spends many more hours practicing the backstroke than it spends practicing the breaststroke. But the team's lap time for the breaststroke are much better than its times for the backstroke, so the team would win more swim meets if it spent less time practicing the backstroke and more time practicing the breaststroke.

E. Banks have higher profit margin on loans that have a higher interest rate than on loans that have a low interest rate. But borrowers are willing to borrow larger sums at low rates than at high rates. Therefore, bankds would be more profitable if they gave more loans at low rates and fewer loans at high rates.

IMO B....

Approach:
You need to parallel the reasoning given in the stem with the reasoning given in the answers. The error in the reason available in the answers should also be the same as error in the reason of the stem. These questions are based on the organisation of the arguement and not the content.

Stem understanding:
P1 = Govt spends more on Highway safety than Combating Smoking
P2 = People die more because of Smoking than on Highway accident
CN = Hence Govt should shift funds from Highway Safety to Combating Smoking

(A)
P1 = Govt enforces speed limit more closely on Freeways than on Tollways
P2 = But people still die more on Freeways than on Tollways
CN = Govt should shift funds from Freeways to Tollways.
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is asking you to shift the funds even if the accidents are more on Freeway. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(B)
P1 = Musiciain spends more hours practising guitar than saxaphone
P2 = But she is hired to play more of Saxaphone than guitar
CN = Hence she should practise less of guitar and more of Saxaphone
Same structure as stem. Hence CORRECT

(C)
P1 = Automobiles burn more gas on highway than on residential streets
P2 = But on residential streets you get few miles per gallon than Highways
CN = Hence gas would saved by driving less on residential streets and more on Highways
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is comparing gas usage and miles per gallon (2 factors) to reach the conclusion. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(D)
P1 = Swim teams prac more of backstrokes than breast stroke
P2 = Swim team has better timing in breast stroke than back stroke
CN = Hence team would win more swim meets if they prac more on backstroke.
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is asking the team to practise more of backstroke since the team already has a good timing in breast stroke. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(E)
P1 = Banks have more profit margin on loans with higher rates than loans with lower rates
P2 = But loans with high amount and with lower rates are preferred by borrowers
CN = Hence Banks would be more profitable if they give more loans with lower rates and few loans with higher rates
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT
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JT...........
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Senior Manager
Joined: 22 Dec 2009
Posts: 362
Followers: 11

Kudos [?]: 333 [0], given: 47

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16 Jan 2010, 12:25
Thanks buddy
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SD

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10 Jul 2012, 10:02
Diagramming is also an effective way of elucidating parallel reasoning problems.

Cheers,
Der alte Fritz.
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