Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be

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Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by PiyushK on 10 Jul 2014, 14:33, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 04 Aug 2011, 18:16
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tracyyahoo wrote:
10. Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept

why c is not correct. I think C is more acceptable.


Hi Tracyyahoo,

Try to avoid use of Perfect tense unless we don't have any other option as correct answer.
For sake of understanding,
We use present perfect tense for two purpose
1. To show that any action is continuous from past and still in active status or if action is over at least its effect is there.
2. To show the sequence of events.
Here whatever is coming after "heat-exchange network" is describing/modifying only "heat-exchange network ". Now if we will use perfect tense then the sentence will be like below.
heat-exchange network which has kept the brain from getting too hot.
So here we don't have sequence of events, no action which should have completed till now or any effect" so use is wrong.

Anyway for regular thing we use simple tense, that is option B.

KISS = "Keep it simple Sir"


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New post 11 Jul 2012, 06:52
Can someone please explain what is wrong with (C) and D?
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A fundamental rule of grammar is that for eternal things, universal things, and for day-to-day activities, we must use simple present tense. Carnivores enduring heat is a universal, timeless affair that happened yesterday, happens today, and will happen tomorrow. Therefore, the simple present - that keeps - is the right tense. C and D use very wrong tenses each present perfect and present perfect progressive. Therefore, they are not to be considered
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A few things to watch out for:

Which vs. That

The sentence is describing a special 'heat-exchange network' not all 'heat-exchange networks.' In the latter case, we would use 'which.' A heat-exchange network, which is found in both nature and computing, has many practical advantages. However, in this sentence we are not describing all 'heat-exchange networks' only the one relating to carnivorous animals. Thus, we use 'that.'

Another tip off: there is no comma between 'which' and the noun it is modifying. Used in this manner 'which' must always be separated from the subject it is modifying by a comma. 'That', on other hand, does not take a comma.

Present Tense vs. Perfect Tense

The present tense is used to describe an unchanging characteristic of something:

1) Running several miles each day burns many calories vs. Running several miles each day is burning many calories.

2) The sloth is a mammal known to move with more deliberation than the most circumspect of snails vs. The sloth has been a mammal known to move with more deliberation than the most circumspect of snails.


Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept

Hope that helps :)
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New post 14 Sep 2012, 05:35
@ ChrisLele: please explain the which vs that point again. I remember something about using "that" for a restrictive clause and "which" for everything else. So "that" should be used for referring to something specific and removing the part of the sentence following "that" will change its meaning. However, "which" is used for an unrestrictive clause and can refer to anything in general and removing the phrase following "which" wont change the meaning. In a sense, "Which" is used to state qualities or qualifiers.
eg. Trips that take longer than 2 hours are discouraged by the office. Vs. Trips, which can take as long as ten hours, are discouraged by the office. Is this correct?
vs
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New post 16 Sep 2012, 10:00
iindi wrote:
@ ChrisLele: please explain the which vs that point again. I remember something about using "that" for a restrictive clause and "which" for everything else. So "that" should be used for referring to something specific and removing the part of the sentence following "that" will change its meaning. However, "which" is used for an unrestrictive clause and can refer to anything in general and removing the phrase following "which" wont change the meaning. In a sense, "Which" is used to state qualities or qualifiers.
eg. Trips that take longer than 2 hours are discouraged by the office. Vs. Trips, which can take as long as ten hours, are discouraged by the office. Is this correct?
vs


To my understanding, The basic difference b/w usage of "Which and that" is ,
Which is used with non essential Modifiers, for instance, This Car, which is painted red, is mine,

where as

That is used with a essential modifiers, for instance, The car that is painted red is mine.

Here in the question usage of That is justifiable based on the above mention rule.

Thanks :-D
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New post 17 Jul 2013, 04:03
GMAT Tips:
1.Almost always comma is placed before "which". if not then almost it is incorrect.
2.Comma is placed before "which" because which introduces non-restrictive clause..in laymen language---> after "which" extra information follows.
by applying this knowledge Option A & C is out since comma is not placed before "which"

since current situation is discussed so verb should in present tense.clearly verb keeping(in option D) and kept(in option E) are wrong.
hence this POE left with choice B as a correct answer!!
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Heat-exchange network - ask yourself: Is what follows a description that generally describes ALL heat-exchange networks or does it restrict the scope of heat-exchange networks and talk about a specific kind?

Let's look at the phrase: "a heat exchange network that/which keeps the brain from getting hot."


Do all heat exchange networks keep the brain from getting hot?

No.

Only a specific kind does - so in this case we use "that."

Therefore, the answer is (B) - "that keeps"
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New post 07 Jan 2014, 00:28
tracyyahoo wrote:
Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept

why c is not correct. I think C is more acceptable.



C is not correct because it uses has/had + past participle form. Focus on the tense in the text: "can.... have...." so logically, we need simple present. Only B uses simple present "keeps", A,C use past participle and D,E use present participle. Both are wrong.

That's why B is correct
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New post 10 Jul 2014, 04:37
In general which is preceded by comma , So eliminated all option with 'which'

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept (incorrect)
b) that keeps (Correct)
c) which has kept (Incorrect)
d) that has been keeping (incorrect)
e) having kept (wordy also not in same tense as non underlined part)

Hope that helps :)
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New post 26 Feb 2015, 23:26
Chose B because of present tense. First verb in the sentence is in present tense, so I don't think there is a need to change the tense.
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New post 27 Feb 2015, 01:29
Yes, these kind of "general truths" (they have a heat-exchange network that keeps the brain from getting too hot) are best expressed as simple present.

Also, as someone mentioned above, "which" should be preceded by a comma. On that basis alone, A and C can be eliminated.
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New post 30 Mar 2016, 12:03
can i get some more examples (a bit tough ones) on the use of which vs that?
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New post 03 Apr 2016, 07:47
rhine29388 wrote:
can i get some more examples (a bit tough ones) on the use of which vs that?


I hate dogs, which bark.
I hate dogs that bark.

Are you able to find out the difference in meanings between the above two sentences? If you can, then you probably have already understood the concept of restrictive / non-restrictive modifiers adequately. :D
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New post 07 Apr 2016, 06:27
tracyyahoo wrote:
Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept


Meaning:The sentence is stating a simple fact about carnivorous mammals that their body can endure very high heat levels ( such heat levels could be lethal for other animals). The sentence further say that these mammals can do so because they have a heat-exchange network that keeps the brain from getting too hot.

Note: tense is checked here not the which vs that concept

a) kept is past tense which is suggesting that the way heat-exchange network worked is no more valid today. it used to work like this.
c) perfect tense is required if something is started in the past and is still continuing but the sentence is a fact which need a simple present tense.
d) same as C. we need simple present
e) simple present is required to state facts.
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New post 07 Apr 2016, 06:54
rhine29388 wrote:
can i get some more examples (a bit tough ones) on the use of which vs that?


Clauses beginning with relative pronoun which are usually non-restrictive and are always enclosed within commas. For instance,

It's my dream to study in your college, which is ranked as India's best engineering college.

Here "which is India's best ranked engineering college" is a non-restrictive clause as it is just providing additional information. Here possessive pronoun "your" before college makes it clear that we are talking about a particular college which happens to be India's best engineering college. So even if you remove the non-restrictive college we still know that college here is referring to a particular college i.e. "your college".

Clauses beginning with relative pronoun that are restrictive and should not enclosed within commas For instance,

It's my dream to study in a college that is ranked as India's best engineering college.

Here restrictive clause "that is ranked as India's best engineering college" is qualifying college. So if you ask which college is the dream college referred here, the you can only answer this with the information in the restrictive clause. If you remove the restrictive clause then it will completely change the meaning as you do not know anymore which particular college is "the dream college" referred here.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2016, 11:04
tracyyahoo wrote:
Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.


Rule: prefer THAT over which if comma is absent before which.

a) which kept (no comma present before which)
b) that keeps
c) which has kept (no comma present before which)
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept
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