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Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the

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Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the [#permalink] New post 08 Oct 2013, 20:21
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Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the National league required them to do so. These players were 20% less likely to suffer head injuries than other players. Obviously, hockey helmets are critical in preventing head injuries.

Which of the following, if true, would weaken the argument above?

A. Players who began wearing helmets before they were required were, generally, cautious players who were less likely to become involved in rough checking and fights than were other players
B. Early hockey helmets were bulky and uncomfortable, leading some players to complain that they had a negative impact on players' performances
C. Hockey helmets are sometimes constructed from composite materials that provide virtually no cushion from hard shocks
D. Hockey leagues in other countries began requiring helmets more than 20 years earlier, but there are still head injuries in those leagues
E. Hockey helmets do nothing to prevent knee injuries, which are more common than head injuries

Please provide answer along with your reasoning for each option. Thanks.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the [#permalink] New post 08 Oct 2013, 20:43
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mba1382 wrote:
Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the National league required them to do so. These players were 20% less likely to suffer head injuries than other players. Obviously, hockey helmets are critical in preventing head injuries.

Which of the following, if true, would weaken the argument above?

A. Players who began wearing helmets before they were required were, generally, cautious players who were less likely to become involved in rough checking and fights than were other players
B. Early hockey helmets were bulky and uncomfortable, leading some players to complain that they had a negative impact on players' performances
C. Hockey helmets are sometimes constructed from composite materials that provide virtually no cushion from hard shocks
D. Hockey leagues in other countries began requiring helmets more than 20 years earlier, but there are still head injuries in those leagues
E. Hockey helmets do nothing to prevent knee injuries, which are more common than head injuries

Please provide answer along with your reasoning for each option. Thanks.


Hi,

Its A.
We can use the pre-thinking technique to find an assumption that may weaken the argument before we hit the options.

The argument says that hockey players who wear helmet are 20% less likely to suffer head injuries. Hence, it is the helmet that is critical in preventing head injuries.

Pre-Thinking --> So, what can weaken this? Probably something that says that helmet are not responsible for the players suffering less head injuries. Or the classic opposite used in GMAT, rather than the helmet, the players using the helmet (without any compulsion to do so) are responsible for not suffering head injuries?

Having this in mind when you attack the options:
A. Players who began wearing helmets before they were required were, generally, cautious players who were less likely to become involved in rough checking and fights than were other players
BINGO! Exactly what I had thought. Hold
B. Early hockey helmets were bulky and uncomfortable, leading some players to complain that they had a negative impact on players' performances
So what? How does this weaken my conclusion? Hence out.
C. Hockey helmets are sometimes constructed from composite materials that provide virtually no cushion from hard shocks
This option simply states that helmet does not provide any cushion from hard shocks, but does not, in any way, weaken the conclusion.
D. Hockey leagues in other countries began requiring helmets more than 20 years earlier, but there are still head injuries in those leagues
This is quite close. This also weakens the argument. However, if you notice, there is no mention about the details of head injuries that are still prevailing. As in what is the nature (severe or not), frequency (high or low) as compared to the time before use of helmets was mandated etc. Does not provide enough information to weaken the argument. Hence out.
E. Hockey helmets do nothing to prevent knee injuries, which are more common than head injuries
Out of scope

Hence A is correct

Hope it helps :)
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Re: Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2013, 04:35
rockstar23 wrote:
mba1382 wrote:
Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the National league required them to do so. These players were 20% less likely to suffer head injuries than other players. Obviously, hockey helmets are critical in preventing head injuries.

Which of the following, if true, would weaken the argument above?

A. Players who began wearing helmets before they were required were, generally, cautious players who were less likely to become involved in rough checking and fights than were other players
B. Early hockey helmets were bulky and uncomfortable, leading some players to complain that they had a negative impact on players' performances
C. Hockey helmets are sometimes constructed from composite materials that provide virtually no cushion from hard shocks
D. Hockey leagues in other countries began requiring helmets more than 20 years earlier, but there are still head injuries in those leagues
E. Hockey helmets do nothing to prevent knee injuries, which are more common than head injuries

Please provide answer along with your reasoning for each option. Thanks.


Hi,

Its A.
We can use the pre-thinking technique to find an assumption that may weaken the argument before we hit the options.

The argument says that hockey players who wear helmet are 20% less likely to suffer head injuries. Hence, it is the helmet that is critical in preventing head injuries.

Pre-Thinking --> So, what can weaken this? Probably something that says that helmet are not responsible for the players suffering less head injuries. Or the classic opposite used in GMAT, rather than the helmet, the players using the helmet (without any compulsion to do so) are responsible for not suffering head injuries?

Having this in mind when you attack the options:
A. Players who began wearing helmets before they were required were, generally, cautious players who were less likely to become involved in rough checking and fights than were other players
BINGO! Exactly what I had thought. Hold
B. Early hockey helmets were bulky and uncomfortable, leading some players to complain that they had a negative impact on players' performances
So what? How does this weaken my conclusion? Hence out.
C. Hockey helmets are sometimes constructed from composite materials that provide virtually no cushion from hard shocks
This option simply states that helmet does not provide any cushion from hard shocks, but does not, in any way, weaken the conclusion.
D. Hockey leagues in other countries began requiring helmets more than 20 years earlier, but there are still head injuries in those leagues
This is quite close. This also weakens the argument. However, if you notice, there is no mention about the details of head injuries that are still prevailing. As in what is the nature (severe or not), frequency (high or low) as compared to the time before use of helmets was mandated etc. Does not provide enough information to weaken the argument. Hence out.
E. Hockey helmets do nothing to prevent knee injuries, which are more common than head injuries
Out of scope

Hence A is correct

Hope it helps :)



Still Not able to understand why NOT D....Its says that there were still injuries even after using helmets showing helmets aren't critical...
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Re: Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2013, 05:08
Hi Himang,

Good question on D. It's a tricky one.

The main thing you need to think about here is the fact that helmets reduce injuries, rather than eliminate them.

So it is not surprising that their are still injuries in other leagues, the key fact we need is something about percentage of injuries. D does not have this, but A does provide something that helps.

Does that make sense?

All the best,

James
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Re: Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2013, 05:32
himang wrote:
Still Not able to understand why NOT D....Its says that there were still injuries even after using helmets showing helmets aren't critical...


Reason why D is not correct:
Before it was compulsory for players to wear helmets, number of injuries = 100 (assume)
However, there is no detail as to how many injuries were there after players were required to wear helmets. It could be 10 or it could be 90. Hence option D provides insufficient information to conclude that helmets are in no way responsible in reducing the likelihood that players will suffer head injuries.

When D could have been correct:
Assume the following to be Option D:
Hockey leagues in other countries began requiring helmets more than 20 years earlier, but there are still same number (or almost same) of head injuries in those leagues.
This option clearly weakens by telling that even though helmets were used since 20 years, there is no significant change in the number of head injuries suffered. Clearly, helmets do not contribute in reducing the likelihood of suffering head injuries

Reason why A is correct:
On the contrary, in option A, it is clearly mentioned that its the players who play cautiously because of which they were less likely to suffer head injuries. It directly hammers the conclusion that the helmets had to do anything with the players being less likely to suffer head injuries.

Hope it is clear now :)
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Re: Certain hockey players began wearing helmets before the   [#permalink] 11 Oct 2013, 05:32
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