Challenging Question : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC) - Page 2
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# Challenging Question

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25 Sep 2010, 10:07
I Agree with D The structuring is slightly better than E
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25 Sep 2010, 14:49
Good question

I was contemplating between C and E as well. I understand the use of "determined" and "differing" but the "which" confused me. Thanks seekmba for providing that explanation too.
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14 May 2011, 09:53
'I want to know if there is "which parallelism" like "that parallelism"

C is OUT since I need a second which to make it parallel to the first one'.

if there is a 'which' parallelism , where to use it and where to avoid it ? and what are the rules for 'that' parallelism ?

i think the use of 'ed' for objects and 'ing' for subjects is fairly clear,but i will refer to this question quite a few times.
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16 May 2011, 08:52
usage of were is not correct for abolition of local times.
differing is a correct usage, differed will give superficial parallelism w.r.t sun reached.
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08 Jun 2011, 14:34
What a terrific question that tests parallel structure in participles! Missed it..but good lessons to learn.
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09 Jun 2011, 22:42
Which always refers to the noun before it. So "which" refers to "local times" rather than "abolition of local times".

ykaiim wrote:
The introductory part is in past tense. So, we need rest of the format in past tense.
1. determined - It is a past participle paralle with led. Moreover it is preferred, IMO, to which were determined

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
The abolition of local times is singular adjectival phrase. So, which were is incorrect.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

So, E is correct, though best of the all worst.

nusmavrik wrote:
Hi Guys

I am reopening this question- since I am am still not able to zero-in on the answer.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

C / E which one and why ?

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14 Jul 2011, 05:01
I want to put some more light on C/E split.
A:- S-V-Agreement issue .another thing is misplaced modifier( abolition of local times,which(seems like modifying abolition not times-according of mission critical modifier)
B-ditto A
C- solve the agreement issue,but relative clause issue remain.
D-differed is incorrect(differed is past participle) it should be differing,which would get it's verb from main verb.
E- determined ......differing parallel.present participle get their tense from main verb.
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14 Jul 2011, 21:17
IMO D. I dont agree with the OA,what's the source of this question?
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14 Jul 2011, 22:41
nusmavrik wrote:
Hi Guys

I am reopening this question- since I am am still not able to zero on the answer.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

C / E which one and why ?

Definitely E

since it's "times", so you should use plural forms. That eliminates A, B

C: "which were... and ____ "the part after "and" should be parallel to "which were", so the correct form should be "which were ... and which differed". SO C is out

D and E both start with "determined by..." suggesting that they're participial phrases, so the part after "and" should be a participial phrase too and that eliminates D.

E is correct in that it's a participial phrase in parallel structure, modifying "local times"
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28 Sep 2011, 23:02
nusmavrik wrote:
Hi Guys

I am reopening this question- since I am am still not able to zero on the answer.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

C / E which one and why ?

Thanks nusmavrik for posting this nice question.
I also got trapped in D
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06 Apr 2012, 11:25
vdbhamare wrote:
isn't differing wrong here as we are talking about past

I'm also confused by this. Can anyone explain why "differing" is used? Maybe i missed it earlier
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24 Apr 2012, 13:33
nusmavrik wrote:
Hi Guys

I am reopening this question- since I am am still not able to zero on the answer.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

C / E which one and why ?

This is what I found

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html
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09 Jun 2012, 09:04
nusmavrik wrote:
Hi Guys

I am reopening this question- since I am am still not able to zero on the answer.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

C / E which one and why ?

i pick E here. "times" is the object in "determined" and subject in "differing". there is a similar question in OG 12. the question number is 42.
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18 Jul 2012, 22:59
I was very much confused, referred to Manhattan Post here:

Quote:

Can't decide based on which / determined. Could construct a correct sentence either way.

The growth led to X, [which were A and B], and Y.

X and Y need to be parallel; A and B need to be parallel. X and Y aren't underlined, so we can ignore them (but note that they are parallel already!).

C says "which were determined by and differing" - those aren't parallel.

In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b) there's no subject you could match up with determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which the clause is referring) "times, determined by" is not proper subject-verb config.

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18 Jul 2012, 23:32
Thanks for the post guys! A lot of Gyan(knowledge) came out of this post!
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19 Jul 2012, 00:11
Note : growth of the railroads is singular
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19 Jul 2012, 03:24
Hi everyone the usage of the "ing" and "ed " is well explained .But still i dont understand why C is wrong ."Which" in the sentence correctly refers to the local times .
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10 Aug 2012, 13:26
nusmavrik wrote:
Hi Guys

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

One way to break this amazingly confusing sentence down is like this: (using E)

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Finally, you are modifying local times that were abolished during a certain point in time. (hence why C is so commonly debated).

Local times were determined [ at a certain point in time ] and differing from city to city [ they still differ today ].

Hope this helps breaking it down.
-C
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22 Aug 2012, 06:56
This question just threw me off.
Mindblowing one
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22 Aug 2012, 08:22
[quote="egmat"]
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed: Incorrect. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier) is not parallel to “differed from city to city” (a verb phrase). Notice here that “determined” is not a verb here. It is a verb-ed modifier that is modifying “local times”. If it were a verb, ther would be no comma before it and the subject and the verb would be connected properly.

Why "differed from city to city" is a verb phrase and not a verb-ed modifier. In the context of the sentence

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

If we omit the red coloured part then "differed" can be treated as verb-ed modifier.

Please explain and make me understand the concept.
Re: Challenging Question   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2012, 08:22

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