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Chronic back pain is usually caused by a herniated or

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Chronic back pain is usually caused by a herniated or [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 06:00
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Chronic back pain is usually caused by a herniated or degenerated spinal disk. In most cases the disk will have been damaged years before chronic pain develops, and in fact an estimated one in five people over the age of 30 has a herniated or degenerated disk that shows no chronic symptoms. If chronic pain later develops in such a case, it is generally brought about by a deterioration of the abdominal and spinal muscles caused by insufficient exercise.

The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following?

(A) Four out of five people over the age of 30 can be sure they will never develop chronic back pain.

(B) People who exercise their abdominal and spinal muscles regularly are sure to be free from chronic back pain.

(C) Patients rarely suffer even mild and fleeting back pain at the time that a spinal disk first becomes herniated or degenerated.

(D) Doctors can accurately predict which people who do not have chronic back pain will develop it in the future.

(E) There is a strategy that can be effective in delaying or preventing the onset of pain from a currently asymptomatic herniated or degenerated spinal disk.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 06:27
E is my choice.

A is out because the passage does not say that herniated or degenerated spinal disk is the only cause for chronic back pain.

B is out because the passage does not mention or garuntee that regular exercise of the abdominal and spinal muscles will 100 % prevent chronic back pain.

C is out because the passage does not provide information whether patients suffer any mild pains or not, during initial degenaration of spinal disks.

D is out of scope as nothing about Doctors prediction is mentioned.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 06:54
"E"...all others r out-of-scope.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 07:07
(A) Four out of five people over the age of 30 can be sure they will never develop chronic back pain.
- No. It's an estimate 1 in 5 poeple. So 4 of 5 is too extreme and definite.

(B) People who exercise their abdominal and spinal muscles regularly are sure to be free from chronic back pain.
- We only know in some cases, its caused by insufficient exercise. Some cases are not caused by insufficient exercies. So again, we can't be sure.

(C) Patients rarely suffer even mild and fleeting back pain at the time that a spinal disk first becomes herniated or degenerated.
- I'll go wit this. We are told in the passage chronic pain is developed after the spinal is damaged a long time back, and for some, only due to insufficient exercise after a herniated/degenerated disk. So patients will rarely suffer any back pain at the time a spinal disk becomes herniated/degenerated.

(D) Doctors can accurately predict which people who do not have chronic back pain will develop it in the future.
- No. Nothing the passage suggests this.

(E) There is a strategy that can be effective in delaying or preventing the onset of pain from a currently asymptomatic herniated or degenerated spinal disk.
- Out. Nothing in the passage suggests any ways to delay/prevent onset of pain

C it is.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 07:09
E, the other choices are too strong
in A "can be sure"
in B "are sure"
in C "rarely"
in D "accurately"
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 07:48
thearch wrote:
E, the other choices are too strong
in A "can be sure"
in B "are sure"
in C "rarely"
in D "accurately"


E is too limited. It states there's only one way that can effectively delay/prevent onset of pain from a degenerated spinal disk. There is nothing in the passage that states what way that is, neither can we draw from the statements what the method is. We know chronic back pain comes from a degenerated disk. For some people (not all), this symptom only appears many years.

That's all we know, so we can't say there is a method to delay/prevent onset of pain. Exercise is not that way because it says sufficient exercise is nescessary, and we do not know the limits of 'sufficient'. I could be exercising my abdominal and spinal muscle regularly, but insufficinetly.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 07:49
I will go with 'E'

Since we are told only about patients not having chronic pain 'C' cannot be concluded from the given statements.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 08:06
rthothad wrote:
I will go with 'E'

Since we are told only about patients not having chronic pain 'C' cannot be concluded from the given statements.


C doesn't say the patient doesn't have chronic pain. It says the patient does not experience pain the first time the spinal disk becomes herniated. The passage tells us the chronic pain comes after a while, not immediate.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 08:16
ywilfred wrote:
rthothad wrote:
I will go with 'E'

Since we are told only about patients not having chronic pain 'C' cannot be concluded from the given statements.


C doesn't say the patient doesn't have chronic pain. It says the patient does not experience pain the first time the spinal disk becomes herniated. The passage tells us the chronic pain comes after a while, not immediate.


wilfred "C" can't be right...."C" talks abt ppl rarely getting mild and fleeting back pain, however, psg talks abt of chronic pains not occuring, 2 separate things. According to the psg we only know abt chronis pains and nothing abt mild pains etc.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 08:20
banerjeea_98 wrote:
ywilfred wrote:
rthothad wrote:
I will go with 'E'

Since we are told only about patients not having chronic pain 'C' cannot be concluded from the given statements.


C doesn't say the patient doesn't have chronic pain. It says the patient does not experience pain the first time the spinal disk becomes herniated. The passage tells us the chronic pain comes after a while, not immediate.


wilfred "C" can't be right...."C" talks abt ppl rarely getting mild and fleeting back pain, however, psg talks abt of chronic pains not occuring, 2 separate things. According to the psg we only know abt chronis pains and nothing abt mild pains etc.


How did you arrive at E ? Which part of the passage suggest there's a method to delay onset of chronic pain ?? :lol:
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 08:40
ywilfred, The last line talks about 'E'

If chronic pain later develops in such a case, it is generally brought about by a deterioration of the abdominal and spinal muscles caused by insufficient exercise

Therefore if you do sufficient exercise you can delay the onset of pain.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 13:14
can someone break down the premise here. what is the OA?
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 13:58
doens't chronic back pain included mild and fleeting back pain ?

I go with C, Chunjuwu, please post OE, thanks.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 15:42
banerjeea_98 wrote:
rthothad wrote:
ywilfred, The last line talks about 'E'

If chronic pain later develops in such a case, it is generally brought about by a deterioration of the abdominal and spinal muscles caused by insufficient exercise

Therefore if you do sufficient exercise you can delay the onset of pain.


Exactly !


choice (E): I agree with delaying but where in the passage it is mentioned about preventing.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 15:43
I got it.

If chronic pain later develops in such a case..
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 16:24
I am oscillating between C & E but i think in the Exam i wud have gone with choice C. I am confused with the statement provided in option E.

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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 18:29
patrickpui wrote:
can someone break down the premise here. what is the OA?


What we have here is a bunch of premises:

1) Chronic back pain caused by herniated/degenerated spinal disk
2) Most cases: Disk damageed years before chronic pain develops
3) ~20% of people over 30 has herniated/degenerated disk with no chronic pain
4) Chronic pain only develops later on due to deterioration of abdominal/spinal muscles caused by insufficient exercise

Let's look at (E).

There is a strategy that can be effective in delaying or preventing the onset of pain from a currently asymptomatic herniated or degenerated spinal disk.

We know that for approximately 20% of the people, there is a way to delay/prevent the onset of pain, but can this be representative for everyone. What (E) suggests is that if everyone exercise, you can be free of chronic pain even if you have a herniated/degenerated disk. Look at premise 3) and premise 4). The exercise survey was carried out only for people over 30. What about people under 30 ?? Will sufficient exercise help them ? We don't know.

I'll stick with (C) for now.

What's the OA ?
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 18:53
ywilfred wrote:
We know that for approximately 20% of the people, there is a way to delay/prevent the onset of pain, but can this be representative for everyone. What (E) suggests is that if everyone exercise, you can be free of chronic pain even if you have a herniated/degenerated disk. Look at premise 3) and premise 4). The exercise survey was carried out only for people over 30. What about people under 30 ?? Will sufficient exercise help them ? We don't know.

I'll stick with (C) for now.

What's the OA ?


ywilfred, The premise is concerned only about ppl over 30, if you read the last line you will notice the 'such a case' referring to ppl over 30.

If chronic pain later develops in such a case, it is generally brought about by a deterioration of the abdominal and spinal muscles caused by insufficient exercise.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 19:42
banerjeea_98 wrote:
ywilfred wrote:
rthothad wrote:
I will go with 'E'

Since we are told only about patients not having chronic pain 'C' cannot be concluded from the given statements.


C doesn't say the patient doesn't have chronic pain. It says the patient does not experience pain the first time the spinal disk becomes herniated. The passage tells us the chronic pain comes after a while, not immediate.


wilfred "C" can't be right...."C" talks abt ppl rarely getting mild and fleeting back pain, however, psg talks abt of chronic pains not occuring, 2 separate things. According to the psg we only know abt chronis pains and nothing abt mild pains etc.


Hi, the question is mild and fleeting back pains <> chronic pains,
'fleeting' means short-term, while 'chronic' means long-term.

right?
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2005, 19:45
chunjuwu wrote:
banerjeea_98 wrote:
ywilfred wrote:
rthothad wrote:
I will go with 'E'

Since we are told only about patients not having chronic pain 'C' cannot be concluded from the given statements.


C doesn't say the patient doesn't have chronic pain. It says the patient does not experience pain the first time the spinal disk becomes herniated. The passage tells us the chronic pain comes after a while, not immediate.


wilfred "C" can't be right...."C" talks abt ppl rarely getting mild and fleeting back pain, however, psg talks abt of chronic pains not occuring, 2 separate things. According to the psg we only know abt chronis pains and nothing abt mild pains etc.


Hi, the question is mild and fleeting back pains <> chronic pains,
'fleeting' means short-term, while 'chronic' means long-term.

right?


Yes, but C says the patient does not experience short term pain at the first time he gets a degenerated disk. That's because he should be experiencing chronic pain. The opening premise tells us that.
  [#permalink] 14 Apr 2005, 19:45
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