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Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor

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Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 19 Nov 2012, 08:47
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Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, the authors of a recent study have found that most eligible American workers had not made the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
a) Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, the authors of a recent study have found that most eligible American workers had not made the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
b) Increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning on the part of workers, and excess complexity in the plans themselves have been explained by a recent study finding the majority of eligible American workers who do not make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
c) Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor worker financial planning, and excessively complex plans themselves as possible explanations, a majority of American workers had failed to make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans, a recent study has found.
d)The authors of a recent study, citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, have found that most eligible American workers do not make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
e)A recent study has found that most eligible American workers fail to make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans; among the explanations cited are increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning on the workers' part, and excess complexity in the plans themselves.

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Re: Citing increasing worker [#permalink] New post 19 Nov 2012, 16:15
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A good challenging SC.

Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, the authors of a recent study have found that most eligible American workers had not made the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.

Notice, this has a failed parallel structure:
/Citing
//increasing worker mobility between companies
//poor financial planning by workers
and
/finding

That's a variant of parallelism that the GMAT does not accept. We don't simply have three element in parallel, but some bizarre 2 vs. 1 split. No good.

A) Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, the authors of a recent study have found that most eligible American workers had not made the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
Wrong for the failure in parallelism.

B) Increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning on the part of workers, and excess complexity in the plans themselves have been explained by a recent study finding the majority of eligible American workers who do not make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
The awkward wordy passive construction "have been explained by a recent study finding" is anathema on GMAT SC.

C) Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor worker financial planning, and excessively complex plans themselves as possible explanations, a majority of American workers had failed to make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans, a recent study has found.
Misplaced modifier. "Citing blah blah ...., a majority of American workers ...." The American workers were not doing the citing. The American works are experiencing the problems, but the majority is not writing about the problem. It is the study, or the authors of the study, that did the citing --- they have to be the target of this modifier.

D)The authors of a recent study, citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, have found that most eligible American workers do not make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
This answer choice repeats the faulty parallelism construction of the prompt.

E) A recent study has found that most eligible American workers fail to make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans; among the explanations cited are increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning on the workers' part, and excess complexity in the plans themselves.
Clear, direct, active, and the parallelism is handled correctly. This one is flawless.

Let me know if anyone reading this has any questions.

Mike :-)
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Re: Citing increasing worker [#permalink] New post 19 Nov 2012, 19:17
mikemcgarry wrote:
A good challenging SC.

Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, the authors of a recent study have found that most eligible American workers had not made the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.

Notice, this has a failed parallel structure:
/Citing
//increasing worker mobility between companies
//poor financial planning by workers
and
/finding

That's a variant of parallelism that the GMAT does not accept. We don't simply have three element in parallel, but some bizarre 2 vs. 1 split. No good.

A) Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, the authors of a recent study have found that most eligible American workers had not made the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
Wrong for the failure in parallelism.

B) Increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning on the part of workers, and excess complexity in the plans themselves have been explained by a recent study finding the majority of eligible American workers who do not make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
The awkward wordy passive construction "have been explained by a recent study finding" is anathema on GMAT SC.

C) Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor worker financial planning, and excessively complex plans themselves as possible explanations, a majority of American workers had failed to make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans, a recent study has found.
Misplaced modifier. "Citing blah blah ...., a majority of American workers ...." The American workers were not doing the citing. The American works are experiencing the problems, but the majority is not writing about the problem. It is the study, or the authors of the study, that did the citing --- they have to be the target of this modifier.

D)The authors of a recent study, citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, have found that most eligible American workers do not make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.
This answer choice repeats the faulty parallelism construction of the prompt.

E) A recent study has found that most eligible American workers fail to make the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans; among the explanations cited are increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning on the workers' part, and excess complexity in the plans themselves.
Clear, direct, active, and the parallelism is handled correctly. This one is flawless.

Let me know if anyone reading this has any questions.

Mike :-)


E sounded and read flawless, indeed. Proper usage of ; and "workers' part" were especially of note.
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 22 Nov 2012, 18:37
Hi Mike,
There are no parallel markers between citing and increasing. So where is the question of parallelism? They don't seem to be in a list.
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 26 Nov 2012, 11:38
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vsprakash2003 wrote:
Hi Mike,
There are no parallel markers between citing and increasing. So where is the question of parallelism? They don't seem to be in a list.

I'm sorry --- I really don't understand what you are asking. Please make extremely clear what you are asking, and I will be happy to help.
Mike :-)
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 26 Nov 2012, 12:31
mikemcgarry wrote:
vsprakash2003 wrote:
Hi Mike,
There are no parallel markers between citing and increasing. So where is the question of parallelism? They don't seem to be in a list.

I'm sorry --- I really don't understand what you are asking. Please make extremely clear what you are asking, and I will be happy to help.
Mike :-)


He has pointed out the parallelism between nouns versus all the items in -ing form but one of them is actually a verb. But I got to say, that was easy to miss.
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 26 Nov 2012, 13:09
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nanishora wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
vsprakash2003 wrote:
Hi Mike,
There are no parallel markers between citing and increasing. So where is the question of parallelism? They don't seem to be in a list.

I'm sorry --- I really don't understand what you are asking. Please make extremely clear what you are asking, and I will be happy to help.
Mike :-)

He has pointed out the parallelism between nouns versus all the items in -ing form but one of them is actually a verb. But I got to say, that was easy to miss.


Yes, this is a tricky sentence to sort out. I will try to explain.

Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor financial planning by workers, and finding that the plans themselves are excessively complex, the authors of a recent study have found that most eligible American workers had not made the maximum allowed contribution to their employer-offered retirement plans.

The participles "citing" and "finding" modify "the authors" (i.e. the main subject of the sentence). These both describe actions of the authors. Those two, by themselves, properly could be in parallel with each other.

The participle "increasing" merely modifies the noun "mobility" --- it's not part of any parallelism in and of itself. The noun "mobility" and the gerund "planning" are in parallel --- these are the two objects of the participle "citing" --- they are the things that the authors cited.

Then problem is ----- we have three terms joined by "and" ---- "...[A] mobility ..., ... [B] planning ...., and [C]finding ....." Term [C] is supposed to be in parallel with "citing", whereas terms [A] & [B] are objects of the participle "citing" in parallel with each other. This is a gross violation of parallelism.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 03 Jan 2013, 18:27
very nice question!! nouns such as worker mobility cannot be parallal to verbs such as finding.
Option E eliminates this issue
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2013, 04:22
Dear Mike,

Would you please help in understanding the usage of the verb "Had not made". Is it correct.
I have seen instances where it is not used as a Past Perfect but simple a past tense of Have+ ed verb tense.

example:
In an attempt to attract more tourists,the Swiss government commissioned several life-size fiberglass cow statues, had
them decorated by local artists, and set them up on the streets of Zurich.


Can you please post your reasoning.

Thanks
Himanshu
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2013, 10:37
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imhimanshu wrote:
Dear Mike,

Would you please help in understanding the usage of the verb "Had not made". Is it correct.
I have seen instances where it is not used as a Past Perfect but simple a past tense of Have+ ed verb tense.

example:
In an attempt to attract more tourists,the Swiss government commissioned several life-size fiberglass cow statues, had them decorated by local artists, and set them up on the streets of Zurich.

Can you please post your reasoning.

Thanks
Himanshu

Dear Himanshu,
Yes, I'm happy to help. :-)

Let's distinguish precisely between two very closely related things

(1) "had" + "past participle of verb" = ALWAYS is the past perfect tense; for more on the perfect tenses, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-verb- ... ct-tenses/
had bought
had sold
had carried
had decorated

All past perfect

(2) "had" + [noun] + "past participle of verb" = NEVER the perfect tense; this is an idiomatic construction for a command being carried out.
had the items bought
had the old car sold
had the books carried
had the fiberglass cow decorated

None of these are past perfect. In each case, the subject of the verb is someone who gave the command or the instructions for the action, and someone else entirely is actually carrying out the action. The person who performs the action could be the subject of a "by" preposition.
The Swiss government had several life-size fiberglass cow statues decorated by local artists.
The main subject = The Swiss government = the folks who gave the order, provided the conditions to allow the action to occur (probably paid money to make things happen)
The main verb = "had"
The direct object = "several life-size fiberglass cow statues"
participial phrase = decorated by local artists --- the local artist are the one who actually perform the action of decorating the cows, following the command or incentive of the Swiss government.

You see, in construction #1, the "had" and the past participle together form a single verb, which can be the main verb of a sentence or the verb of any subordinate clause. In construction #2, "had" is the whole verb all by itself, followed by a direct object, followed by a participial phrase. Here, the past participle opens the participial phrase, the noun modifier, and plays absolutely no part in the main verb of the sentence.

Does this distinction make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor [#permalink] New post 08 Oct 2013, 16:43
Posting, in case someone has the same doubt-

Quote:
Dear Mike,
In the above explanation, you have given the framework when "Had" alone will be working as complete verb.

Framework:
had" + [noun] + "past participle of verb

Quote:
While children’s programming had once been limited to a few hours a week, at least four cable networks are now dedicated


So, in the above sentence, what is the function of "HAd". Is it working alone as verb or as past perfect tense. the confusion arises because "once" is not a noun but an adverb.
Please clarify.

Thank You.


Dear Himanshu,
For some reasons, as I was typing, the post ceased to exist. Here's the response to your question.

An adverb, especially the adverb "not", often comes between the words of a multi-word verb --- between the auxiliary verbs and the main verbs. That's precisely what is happening in the sentence you quote ---- the main verb is "had .... been limited", broken up by the adverb "once". Again, this is very typical --- adverbs inserted between the words of a multi-word verb.
(1) The President has not been informed of the crisis.
(2) The ambassador would finally meet his Chinese counterpart.
Some people consider this construction in poor taste: while it's often unavoidable with the word "not", as in #1, some would argue that, when it is avoidable, the sentence should be re-arranged to avoid this. These purists would re-write #2 as: The ambassador finally would meet his Chinese counterpart. This is not a strict rule of grammar, but as a general pattern, the GMAT tends to follow this guideline on correct GMAT SC answers. In and of itself, this would NEVER be the deciding split of a GMAT SC question --- it's too subtle. The word "not" always comes after the first auxiliary verb, and this is true for any auxiliary verb.
He has not come.
He had not come.
He would not come.
He did not come.
He should not come.
He would not come.
He may not come.
etc.
That's a quite standard and ordinary construction in English, although, as I say, some purists question it if the adverb is something other than "not."

The other construction, much rarer, somewhat more colloquial, and not particularly likely to find on the GMAT, is [verb] + [object] + [adjective].
The blow knocked him unconscious.
The news made me excited.
The police chief had the suspects arrested.
This is a very different structure from the first. The confusion arises because of the tricky verb "has/had", which can function either as an auxiliary verb or as a full-fledged independent verb with a multitude of meanings. It's very important to distinguish whether the word between "had" and a participle is an adverb or a noun.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Citing increasing worker mobility between companies, poor   [#permalink] 08 Oct 2013, 16:43
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