Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart

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Director
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2012, 13:33
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A)Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Any idea why the answer is C and not D?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by enigma123 on 30 Jan 2012, 14:04, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2012, 13:41
Sorry guys - the question says "Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 07:50
I still feel that D is the best option available.C in fact strengthens the argument by stating that that infected gums leads to irritation of the arteries.Only option D weakens the argument by stating that change in food habits have lead to the heart disease and not periodontal disease .
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+1 if you like my explanation .Thanks

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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 08:36
B for me. It indicates that there is no relation between coronary artery disease and gum disease. It's a person's habit that leads to the occurrence of both the diseases.

As far as D goes, I think it strengthens the argument, since it would explain one way that periodontal disease indirectly causes consumption of unhealthy foods, which would increase the occurrence of negative health effects.

Are you sure OA is C?

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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 09:40
How can the OA is C???
nowhere close...
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 14:05
My apologies - correct answer is B. Please let me know if you need an explanation and I will explain. I did get it right in the end. Actually, hamm's explanation is correct.
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2012, 02:48
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Can you please explain the OA. i was struck between B and E. How do you eliminate E here?.
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2012, 04:34
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maheshsrini wrote:
Can you please explain the OA. i was struck between B and E. How do you eliminate E here?.

All E establishes is correlation. It basically just restates the evidence from the prompt that "periodontal disease and cardiovascular problems often occur in the same patients". There's no indication here which would be cause and which would be effect. Additionally, "cardiac transplant" is too narrow since it doesn't address any cardiovascular problems that might not result in a cardiac transplant.

The reason for picking B is quoted from above:
hamm0 wrote:
B for me. It indicates that there is no relation between coronary artery disease and gum disease. It's a person's habit that leads to the occurrence of both the diseases.

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2013, 12:03
I thought E was the answer. My reasoning was that E shows reverse relationship.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2013, 15:03
Right! E is reverse logic trap, therefore it strengths, while we are looking for the answer that weakens!

summer101 wrote:
I thought E was the answer. My reasoning was that E shows reverse relationship.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2013, 09:48
B for me though E is also confusing....
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2013, 08:07
Hi Semwal,

As others have pointed out E is actually a strengthener.

GMAT loves to do this sort of thing, put in lots of negatives to try and confuse you.

When this happens you need to be super logical, take a little more time and work through the sentence phrase by phrase. This way you work out what is the negative of what, and will give you a clear sense of the meaning.

James
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2013, 00:51
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THANKS PLUMBER250

After going through all comments, its clear that E basically does not state the relationship in reverse( which would weaken the argument)... ie cause and effect has not been reversed.....

thanks
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2015, 12:14
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2015, 22:25
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hamm0 wrote:
B for me. It indicates that there is no relation between coronary artery disease and gum disease. It's a person's habit that leads to the occurrence of both the diseases.

As far as D goes, I think it strengthens the argument, since it would explain one way that periodontal disease indirectly causes consumption of unhealthy foods, which would increase the occurrence of negative health effects.

Are you sure OA is C?

I am unsure about the option B because we are using an outside information that healthy foods decrease heart related ailments. The question does not provide this information. Is it ok?
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2016, 18:16
can someone explain how B weakens the conclusion? B has absolutely 0 to do with anything in the stimulus
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2016, 10:25
nycgirl212 wrote:
can someone explain how B weakens the conclusion? B has absolutely 0 to do with anything in the stimulus

Quote:
Adding my two cents on E:
As there are enough reasons to eliminate A, C, D:
Reason to Eliminate "E" is:
E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Here, basically E talks about the “more likelihood” of the patients with cardiac transplant to have periodontal disease.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2016, 13:01
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nycgirl212 wrote:
can someone explain how B weakens the conclusion? B has absolutely 0 to do with anything in the stimulus

The conclusion of the passage is periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, i.e. disease of gum and teeth causes heart disease.

Option B states that people who take care of their teeth also live a healthy lifestyle. These people do not get heart disease not because they have healthy teeth, but because they lead healthy life.

The conclusion states a causal relation, whereas option B shows that the relation is not causal, but a correlation.

The logic chain can be thought of as follows:
Conclusion: X causes Z
Weakening statement: X and Y happen together, and Y causes Z. (i.e. X does not cause Z)

Here X = healthy teeth
Z = healthy heart
Y = healthy lifestyle.
Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2016, 13:01
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