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COMMON DISTINGUISHMENTS yellow/96226 This post is a part of [#permalink] New post 28 Jun 2010, 05:31

COMMON DISTINGUISHMENTS


This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]

created by: bb
edited by: dzyubam



There + Be


When using the combination of there + be, there is called an “expletive”. It has no meaning as a vocabulary word. It simply introduces the idea that something exists in a particular place. When beginning a sentence with this combination, the subject follows the verb.

There + be + subject + expression of place

There isa clean towelin the linen closet.
Verbsubjectexpression of place
There aresix kittensunder my bed.
Verbsubjectexpression of place
There has beena fireat the warehouse.
Verbsubjectexpression of place


Sometimes the expression of place is omitted when the meaning is clear.
There are seven continents. (The implied expression of place is clearly in the world.)


Say / Tell


Say and tell both mean to communicate verbally with someone, but they are usually used differently. Normally, you say something and you tell someone something.


You say somethingYou tell someone something
Jeff said that he was tired.
Jennifer says you have a new job.
Patricia said, “I love you.”
Jeff told Sam that he was tired.
Jennifer tells me you have a new job.
Patricia told John that she loves him.


Tell uses an object directly following.

Bob told the boss that he wasn’t working tomorrow.
Janice told me that she loves John.

Say uses the word “to” or “that” before the object.

Bob said to the boss that he wasn’t working tomorrow.
Janice said to me that she loves John.
Bob said that he wasn’t working tomorrow.
Janice said that she loves John.

When using direct speech, say is normally used.

Amanda said, “Sweetheart, I’m going to work now.”
“John, that’s a beautiful car!” George said.

Sometimes tell is used in direct speech if it is an instruction, or information. (Notice the object directly after tell as described above.)

Rebecca told her assistant, “Open the door for the caterer.”
He told me, “This is the key to the front door.”

Say and tell cannot be used with reported questions. Ask, or a similar verb, must be used.

Roy asked if I had ever been to Miami.
Mary’s mother asked what I wanted to eat.
The policeman asked me where I lived.
He asked if she wanted to leave.

Tell + object + infinitive is used to give orders, or advice.

The teacher told the child to sit down.
She told me to wait in the lobby.
Tell Bill to have a great trip to Europe.

Exercise 10: Using Say and Tell


Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb say or tell.

1. Jason _____________ his friend to shut up.
2. Jane _____________ that she is feeling sick.
3. My English teacher ______________ I’m learning quickly.
4. The driver _____________, “I’ll pick you up at the airport.”
5. Please, ______________ me where to find the washing detergent.
6. The angry mother ____________, “ I ___________ you not to do that!”
7. I heard Peter _____________ that he was going out with Becky tonight.
8. The security guard ______________ me to get off the stage.
9. _______________ me the story again!
10. Will you ______________ John to meet me after work?

Know / Know How


The verb know, when used by itself, is usually followed by a noun, a prepositional phrase, or a sentence.

She knew the answer.
Everyone knows about gravity.
Jason knew that he was going to be in trouble.

Know how is used to indicate a skill, or ability to do something. This form is followed by the infinitive form of a verb.

Jim knows how to make cool inventions.
Monkeys know how to use primitive tools.
Do you know how to make fudge brownies?

Exercise 11: Using Know and Know How


Fill in the blanks with the correct form of know or know how.

1. The boys ____________________ to catch rabbits with snares.
2. Do you ____________________ to get to the airport from here?
3. I didn’t ____________________ that Jenny was pregnant.
4. I am amazed that Jack ____________________ where to go from here.
5. Some primitive tribes ____________________ to perform surgery long ago.

Need / In Need Of


Usually, when the subject of a sentence is an animate object, the verb need is followed by an infinitive verb.

Hector needs to get a haircut.
We need to leave now.
My dog needs to learn new tricks.

Usually, when the subject of a sentence is an inanimate object, the verb need is followed by either a gerund (or “ing” verb), or the verb to be followed by the past participle of the action verb.

The grass needs cutting. OR The grass needs to be cut.
The motorcycle needs repairing. OR The motorcycle needs to be repaired.
The guest list needs writing. OR The guest list needs to be written.

Be aware that there are some exceptions to these rules. Sometimes, animate objects follow the second rule.

My dog needs to be fed.
The baby needs burping. OR The baby needs to be burped.

Sometimes, inanimate objects follow the first rule.

The buzzer needs to ring before we can leave class.
The grass needs to grow more before I can cut it.

The expression in need of can be used in some cases in place of using the verb need. However, because the word need is not a verb in the phrase in need of, it must be preceded by the verb be.

Darren is in need of a haircut. (Darren needs a haircut.)
The car was in need of new tires. (The car needed new tires.)
The girls were in need of prom dresses. (The girls needed prom dresses.)

Exercise 12: Using Need


Fill in the correct form of the verb in parentheses after the verb need.

1. I need ___________________ finish) my homework.
2. The bus needs to be ___________________ (fill) with gas.
3. Mary’s garden needs ___________________ (water).
4. The thief needs to be ___________________ (punish).
5. Harold will need _____________________ (make) extra cash for his trip.
6. This problem needs _____________________ (solve).
7. Nancy needs _____________________ (wash) the dishes soon.
8. The crops need to be ______________________ (harvest) before it rains.
9. Stacy and I need _____________________ (move) to another apartment.
10. That hole in the road needs ______________________ (fill).






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This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Common Distinguishments [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2010, 01:26
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Nicely explained...

I think the verb in the following sentences is Incorrect :

Hector need to get a haircut.
We needs to leave now.
My dog need to learn new tricks.

Regards..
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Common Distinguishments [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2010, 02:30
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Thanks. My bad. Corrected the errors. +1.
sag wrote:
Nicely explained...

I think the verb in the following sentences is Incorrect :

Hector need to get a haircut.
We needs to leave now.
My dog need to learn new tricks.

Regards..

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Common Distinguishments [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2010, 14:37
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a few more suggestions:

whether ...................Vs.................... if
= incertainty..................................... requires "then" (?), implies conditional

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

due to.......................................VS..........................Because
mostly for nouns/noun phrases......... ........................... mostly for verbals/verbal phrases (?????)

Lie VS Lay
should VS will
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Common Distinguishments [#permalink] New post 09 Dec 2010, 20:50
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I just wanted to add a few things that I came across.

Lie vs lay

Lie - does not take an object

Lay - takes an object

Present tense

A) Lie

Example: I lie down everyday at 3 pm.

B) Lay

Example: She lays the baby in the bassinet.

Present continuous

Lie
Example: I am lying down now.

Lay -
Example: She is laying the baby in the bassinet

Past tense

A) lie becomes lay

Example - I lay down at 3 pm yesterday.

B) lay becomes laid

Example - She laid the baby in the bassinet.

Perfect

A) Lie becomes has/have lain for present and had lain for past

Example: The lions have lain in wait for their prey.
The lions had lain in wait for their prey.

B) Lay becomes - has/have laid for present and for had laid for past

Example: She has laid the baby in the bassinet.
They have laid the baby in the bassinet.
She had laid the baby in the bassinet.

Infinitive

A) lie is of the form - to lie

Example: She told me to lie down at 3 pm.

B) lay is of the form - to lay

Example - I asked her to lay the baby in the bassinet.

Hope this helps.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Common Distinguishments [#permalink] New post 22 Jan 2011, 11:58
Need/In need of

6. This problem needs __solving__ (solve).

Is it also correct to say

6. This problem needs __to be solved__ (solve).
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Common Distinguishments [#permalink] New post 15 Feb 2011, 08:44
ravsg wrote:
Need/In need of

6. This problem needs __solving__ (solve).

Is it also correct to say

6. This problem needs __to be solved__ (solve).



I think grammar wise both the sentences are correct but usage wise latter one seems to be better.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Common Distinguishments [#permalink] New post 21 Mar 2011, 01:52
dzyubam wrote:


You say somethingYou tell someone something
Jeff said that he was tired.
Jennifer says you have a new job.
Patricia said, “I love you.”
Jeff told Sam that he was tired.
Jennifer tells me you have a new job.
Patricia told John that she loves him.





Just to confirm my understanding of the basics - shouldn't it be "Patrica told John that she loved him" ?
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Common Distinguishments [#permalink] New post 15 Apr 2012, 09:14
manu136 wrote:
dzyubam wrote:


You say somethingYou tell someone something
Jeff said that he was tired.
Jennifer says you have a new job.
Patricia said, “I love you.”
Jeff told Sam that he was tired.
Jennifer tells me you have a new job.
Patricia told John that she loves him.





Just to confirm my understanding of the basics - shouldn't it be "Patrica told John that she loved him" ?


I think that the sentence "Patrica told John that she loves him." is correct because 'loves' in this sentence expresses state of Patrica.

Present simple tense rightly expresses the state in which Patrica was in.
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Re: COMMON DISTINGUISHMENTS yellow/96226 This post is a part of [#permalink] New post 01 Feb 2014, 06:27
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Re: COMMON DISTINGUISHMENTS yellow/96226 This post is a part of   [#permalink] 01 Feb 2014, 06:27
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