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Companies have long relied on the creation of task specific [#permalink]
10 Apr 2013, 23:53
Companies have long relied on the creation of task specific groups to address such pressing issues as decision making, problem solving, and perhaps most importantly, task completion. Group oriented task completion has many advantages; a cohesive group with an appropriate organizational context, sufficient material support, and a clearly delineated goal can perform tasks at a far higher level of productivity than can any individual worker. In fact, according to Hackman’s normative model of group effectiveness, a successful synergy of organizational context and group design factors can lead to levels of productivity far exceeding even the most optimistic company forecasts.
Unfortunately, not all groups achieve this positive synergy. Many fail to meet even modest productivity goals. One explanation for this lack of success could involve what Bruce Tuckman describes as the “storming,” or conflict, stage of group formation.Tuckman contends that a successful group must pass through a stage of interpersonal confrontation before it can enter the cohesion phase. After cohesion is achieved, a group can move into the performance mode of operation.
However, group cohesion alone is by no means a guarantee of high productivity. A survey of over two hundred groups of factory workers found that some groups that scored extremely well on the cohesion scale had low levels of productivity. Researchers attribute this finding to group norms--groups that allow conflict issues to become the norm will generally perform at lower productivity levels while groups that can remain focused on the task at hand can more readily achieve the sort of productivity predicted by Hackman.
The primary purpose of the passage is to A .suggest that a particular approach is no longer useful. B. explain why a particular strategy might fail. C.discuss how a certain practice is implemented. D.enumerate the advantages of a business strategy. E.reject a long-standing view of a practice.
2. According to the author, a group that can perform tasks at a far "higher level of productivity" requires all of the following EXCEPT: A.A level of group unity. B. A specified goal. C. A group structure appropriate to the task. D. A clearly defined leadership position. E. Adequate resources.