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# Concerns about public health led to the construction between

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27 Jan 2011, 15:41
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Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston
(a)
(b) Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
(c) Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
(d) There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 18776 and 1903 of three separate sewer systems serving
(e) There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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28 Jan 2011, 07:35
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daryayurlova wrote:
Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston
(a)
(b) Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
(c) Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
(d) There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 18776 and 1903 of three separate sewer systems serving
(e) There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving

Yes A is correct because of misplaced modifiers and verb tense reasons.
D and E are out. D b/c this sentence tells you that the occurrence (leading) happened in the past (b/n 1876 and 1903) so leading should be led instead (Same reason for eliminating E as well).
E can also be eliminated b/c a clearer sentence can be created when "leading" is placed closer to the phrase "to the construction of three separate sewer systems". Not to say that the verb tense leading is correct, by the way.
C is out b/c have led is not the correct verb tense that should be used here. You are trying to convey that that action happened and ended in the past, no that it continues to the present. SO you must use led. For that same reason you can eliminate B.

HTH
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28 Jan 2011, 07:52
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mariyea wrote:
D and E are out. D b/c this sentence tells you that the occurrence (leading) happened in the past (b/n 1876 and 1903) so leading should be led instead (Same reason for eliminating E as well).
HTH

How would you use led with the sentence structure as in D ?... Putting which after health? But then modifier issue would arise... In fact, i went for D beacuse i thought that leading is used here as a participle, which modifies concerns about public health ... But seems i can't do that when i am restrained by time frame in the past ..... hmmm ...
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28 Jan 2011, 07:59
daryayurlova wrote:
mariyea wrote:
D and E are out. D b/c this sentence tells you that the occurrence (leading) happened in the past (b/n 1876 and 1903) so leading should be led instead (Same reason for eliminating E as well).
HTH

How would you use led with the sentence structure as in D ?... Putting which after health? But then modifier issue would arise... In fact, i went for D beacuse i thought that leading is used here as a participle, which modifies concerns about public health ... But seems i can't do that when i am restrained by time frame in the past ..... hmmm ...

You know I didn't notice that ... but (IMHO) I don' think that it was meant to be used as a participle.
But there is another reason why D is wrong, "There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 18776 and 1903 of three separate sewer systems serving" serving is used here to express purpose which is not supposed to be the case. To serve is the proper way that you can express that idea.
Nice going with pointing out the participle though.
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30 Jan 2011, 00:18
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D is out because it changes the meaning.

Original: concerns led to the construction
D: there were some concerns leading to the construction

concerns about public health LED to the construction .. not some of these concerns.

The following examples will make the point clearer.
all students play games.
there are students who play games.

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18 Aug 2015, 08:50
Hi,

can anyone explain why option B is wrong?
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18 Aug 2015, 20:22
dimitri92 wrote:

D is out because it changes the meaning.

Original: concerns led to the construction
D: there were some concerns leading to the construction

concerns about public health LED to the construction .. not some of these concerns.

The following examples will make the point clearer.
all students play games.
there are students who play games.

I agree. meaning or focus of meaning changed in D and E and so they are wrong.

the sentence talking of past event so, only simple past is ok. have done is not ok

this is discussed in manhantan forum already.
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18 Aug 2015, 21:37
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Hi,

can anyone explain why option B is wrong?

In the option B, have led is the problematic part.
We need to simply use led as we are talking about a past event.

Have led means that the concerns lasted till the present times. And this is not the case.
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19 Aug 2015, 01:56
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I feel the answer above are misleading. Sorry to say but, even the GMAT prep company representative has given a very vague answer. I will break down the grammatical reason between answer choice A and B.

Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston
(a)Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve
To begin led is VERB, which is in PAST PERFECT form in the sentence. PAST PERFECT can only be used to talk about the past with a time line that is completed. For instance,
Where were yesterday?
I went to library yesterday.

What did you do on Monday?
I played rugby last Monday.

What did you had for breakfast?
I drank milk in the morning.
Did you notice that I was talking about the past with a specific time? This is exactly where PAST PERFECT form of verbs is used.

so, the option A correct states the specific time associated with the when did construction happen. As many have belabored the point, the first thing on GMAT SC is to look for grammatical correct option. If you follow that you will notice that other options have grammatical problems. I know this modifier seem misplaced, but it grammatical not wrong, and doesn't obscures the meaning of the sentence.
Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve

(b) Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
Here have led is in the form of PRESENT PERFECT. Remember, PRESENT PERFECT is also used to denote a past action that is competed, however, it has no specific time associated with it. For instance,
Where all have been to?
I have been to japan, Korea and Netherlands.

Did you see there was specific time mentioned here? You can't say "I have gone to japan, Korea and Netherlands last year" This is wrong. If you want to add time to sentence you have to say "I went to Japan and Korea last year."
This is why this option is wrong.

Again, both
led
have led
denote a past action but, "led" NEEDS a specific time and "have led" can't be used with a specific time.

I hope this helps you,
Thanks,
Kay
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07 Aug 2016, 22:17
Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston
(a)
(b) Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
(c) Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving

Usage of present perfect is not right in B & C. As timeframe is given between 1876 and 1904 so I assume work is done by 1904.

(d) There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 18776 and 1903 of three separate sewer systems serving : meaning is not coming right from verb-ing. Its like "there were concern about something" that's not the point. Point is that concerns about something led to something.

(e) There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
Concerns about public health led to the construction between   [#permalink] 07 Aug 2016, 22:17
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