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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was

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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2013, 12:42
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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and



Hi guys, I have some misunderstandings about this question in which I would appreciate some explanations

1. 'Construction' is the subject, right? so how this sentence possible : 'construction of the Roman.....began in blah blah'. My point is how the 'construction' began something?? It seems illogical to me. :help2 :?: Shouldn't it be 'construction was begun' in 'C'? I know! I must be wrong, but I couldn't justify myself until now.

2. The verb 'was completed' is passive or 'was' is a linking verb and 'completed' is the adjectives to describe 'construction'. I ask this in regard to my approach to this question; I thought that 'and' must be there, so after 'and' we need a parallel construction, so I said to myself we have 'was completed' so we must have 'was begun' to create parallelism. But when I saw the correct answer I said to myself maybe 'was completed' is not passive (I am REALLY confused) and we need 'began'. When I reached to this point of my logic my first question popped up. Now here I am with lots of paradoxes in my mind. Please help me getting rid of some annoying misunderstandings. Thanks a million.

3. According to my descriptions, Why 'E' is incorrect?

BTW sorry for such dumb questions. I think, I need an in-depth explanation. :( :(
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2013, 14:00
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In E, there is not verb for subject Construction of the Roman Colosseum.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2013, 21:59
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zazoz wrote:

1. 'Construction' is the subject, right? so how this sentence possible : 'construction of the Roman.....began in blah blah'. My point is how the 'construction' began something?? It seems illogical to me. :help2 :?: Shouldn't it be 'construction was begun' in 'C'? I know! I must be wrong, but I couldn't justify myself until now.


Hi zazor.
I'm glad to help.

"Construction began in A.D. 69....." is 100% correct. Because "begin" is intransitive verb that is complete in itself and does not require any further elements to make its meaning complete.
For example: When I listen that song, my heart breaks ==> even though "heart" is a passive doer of action "break", but we don't need to say "my heart is broken".
Other intransitive verbs: appear, arrive, begin, break, come, cough, decrease, die, disappear, drown, fall, go, happen,.....

Quote:
2. The verb 'was completed' is passive or 'was' is a linking verb and 'completed' is the adjectives to describe 'construction'. I ask this in regard to my approach to this question; I thought that 'and' must be there, so after 'and' we need a parallel construction, so I said to myself we have 'was completed' so we must have 'was begun' to create parallelism. But when I saw the correct answer I said to myself maybe 'was completed' is not passive (I am REALLY confused) and we need 'began'. When I reached to this point of my logic my first question popped up. Now here I am with lots of paradoxes in my mind. Please help me getting rid of some annoying misunderstandings. Thanks a million.


We have to say "was completed" because "complete" is NOT a transitive verb. ==> The parallel structure in C is: the construction began .....and was completed......

Quote:
3. According to my descriptions, Why 'E' is incorrect?


E is 100% incorrect because "which" modifies " the Flavian Amphitheater" wrongly. Let ask yourself what began in A.D. 69.? the Flavian Amphitheater (the Roman Colosseum) --OR-- The construction? ==> Clearly, the construction did. Thus, "which" is a misplaced modifier --> E is wrong.

Hope it's clear.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 16 Sep 2013, 00:12
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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

At the end we need a conjunction to connect, i.e AND. hence eliminate A and D. Now are are left with B C E.

E. WAS BEGUN is wrong.

Now as we have narrowed down our options to B and C.

In C "WHICH WAS" correctly refers to "Roman Colosseum" where as in B, "officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" can refer to "Roman Colosseum" and also "Construction" hence creates ambiguity.

So my final choice C.

Hope this helps.

Please +1 KUDO if my post helps. Thank you.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 16 Sep 2013, 04:55
pqhai wrote:
zazoz wrote:

1. 'Construction' is the subject, right? so how this sentence possible : 'construction of the Roman.....began in blah blah'. My point is how the 'construction' began something?? It seems illogical to me. :help2 :?: Shouldn't it be 'construction was begun' in 'C'? I know! I must be wrong, but I couldn't justify myself until now.


Hi zazor.
I'm glad to help.

"Construction began in A.D. 69....." is 100% correct. Because "begin" is intransitive verb that is complete in itself and does not require any further elements to make its meaning complete.
For example: When I listen that song, my heart breaks ==> even though "heart" is a passive doer of action "break", but we don't need to say "my heart is broken".
Other intransitive verbs: appear, arrive, begin, break, come, cough, decrease, die, disappear, drown, fall, go, happen,.....

Quote:
2. The verb 'was completed' is passive or 'was' is a linking verb and 'completed' is the adjectives to describe 'construction'. I ask this in regard to my approach to this question; I thought that 'and' must be there, so after 'and' we need a parallel construction, so I said to myself we have 'was completed' so we must have 'was begun' to create parallelism. But when I saw the correct answer I said to myself maybe 'was completed' is not passive (I am REALLY confused) and we need 'began'. When I reached to this point of my logic my first question popped up. Now here I am with lots of paradoxes in my mind. Please help me getting rid of some annoying misunderstandings. Thanks a million.


We have to say "was completed" because "complete" is NOT a transitive verb. ==> The parallel structure in C is: the construction began .....and was completed......

Quote:
3. According to my descriptions, Why 'E' is incorrect?


E is 100% incorrect because "which" modifies " the Flavian Amphitheater" wrongly. Let ask yourself what began in A.D. 69.? the Flavian Amphitheater (the Roman Colosseum) --OR-- The construction? ==> Clearly, the construction did. Thus, "which" is a misplaced modifier --> E is wrong.

Hope it's clear.



Hi pqhai,

Thank you for your detailed answers. With your explanations my concerns cleared out. The concept you explained about Intransitive verbs always apply, right? I mean when we have them in sentences we don't need further helping verb such as is, was, etc. right?

And just to be sure, in this question's parallelism (...began.....and was completed) began is active or passive? ( Regarding your explanations I would answer my question : active) If I am right, Should we have two passive construction to avoid anti-parallelism?

BTW my name tag is zazoz! :wink:
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 02 Jan 2014, 06:12
kulkarnios wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

At the end we need a conjunction to connect, i.e AND. hence eliminate A and D. Now are are left with B C E.

E. WAS BEGUN is wrong.

Now as we have narrowed down our options to B and C.

In C "WHICH WAS" correctly refers to "Roman Colosseum" where as in B, "officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" can refer to "Roman Colosseum" and also "Construction" hence creates ambiguity.

So my final choice C.

Hope this helps.

Please +1 KUDO if my post helps. Thank you.


Nice explanation.

I eliminated the options B,D and as the following construction :

"Construction of the Roman Colosseum, officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" gives us an impression that "Construction of the Roman Colosseum" as a whole known as Flavian Amphitheater which is wrong and which is required here to point to the "Roman Colosseum".
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 24 Mar 2014, 08:31
Could someone please elaborate more on the (B) vs (D) split?

Would be happy to throw some Kudos out there

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 24 Mar 2014, 09:39
jlgdr wrote:
Could someone please elaborate more on the (B) vs (D) split?

Would be happy to throw some Kudos out there

Cheers
J


in both the options, B and D, :
Construction of the Roman Colosseum,officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater.

"officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is acting as modifier for Roman Colosseum and is giving more information. but if we read the sentence it gives out a meaning as "officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is modifying "Construction of the Roman Colosseum" which is not correct. So the error can be rectified by using which/that (relative pronoun) to fix the noun.
or the sentence can be started as "Roman Colosseum,officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" - this makes sense.

Hope this clarifies your doubt.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink] New post 24 Mar 2014, 09:50
The primary error in B and D is that the options use the wrong tense of "begin" (begun).
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was   [#permalink] 24 Mar 2014, 09:50
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