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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially

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Usage of which [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 15:15
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100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.

If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Please help me out....

Last edited by Zarrolou on 08 Jul 2013, 21:57, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Usage of which [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 15:30
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sanjeebpanda wrote:
100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.


If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Please help me out....


Hi,

it is not true that if you have a preposition phrase then it will modify farther noun..
which always modifies closest noun....except in few cases.

the rule is:
Relative Pronouns Modify closest nouns UNLESS
– The phrase between modified entity and modifier provides additional
information about modified entity
– The phrase cannot be placed anywhere else
– The phrase does not create any ambiguity in meaning

few examples:
I killed the snake,which lived in the burrow behind my house.==>which clearly modifies....SNAKE.

I killed the snake with scales ,which lived in the burrow behind my house.===>here which modifies snake and not the scales...because....above conditions follow here....scales is describing snake....you cannot place anywhere else to make sense correctly.....it doesnot create any ambiguity means.....==>this means scales live behind my house....this doesnt makes sense....

now take other example.:
i killed the snake with eggs ,which lay in burrow behind my house......==>here you can see that there is ambiguity....both EGGS and SNAKE can lay in burrow...hence this version of which is wrong....

so in your question ...which correctly modifies the closest noun.....doubt only when you see that it doesnt make sense meaning wise.....and dont consider your prepositional phrase theory as a rule...

hope it helps
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Re: Usage of which [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 16:40
shaileshmishra wrote:
sanjeebpanda wrote:
100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.


If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Please help me out....


Hi,

it is not true that if you have a preposition phrase then it will modify farther noun..
which always modifies closest noun....except in few cases.

the rule is:
Relative Pronouns Modify closest nouns UNLESS
– The phrase between modified entity and modifier provides additional
information about modified entity
– The phrase cannot be placed anywhere else
– The phrase does not create any ambiguity in meaning

few examples:
I killed the snake,which lived in the burrow behind my house.==>which clearly modifies....SNAKE.

I killed the snake with scales ,which lived in the burrow behind my house.===>here which modifies snake and not the scales...because....above conditions follow here....scales is describing snake....you cannot place anywhere else to make sense correctly.....it doesnot create any ambiguity means.....==>this means scales live behind my house....this doesnt makes sense....

now take other example.:
i killed the snake with eggs ,which lay in burrow behind my house......==>here you can see that there is ambiguity....both EGGS and SNAKE can lay in burrow...hence this version of which is wrong....

so in your question ...which correctly modifies the closest noun.....doubt only when you see that it doesnt make sense meaning wise.....and dont consider your prepositional phrase theory as a rule...

hope it helps



Yeah..I was wrong in my approach.Do yo have any list of questions.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 19:23
Expert's post
Great explanation Shailesh!!

Sanjeeb, you may refer to this article for more official questions and examples:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 23:11
KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


B is elegant as which modifier is useless in A and the addition of and completes the reference validity (began (in) and (was) completed) , D and E also dont have 'which' modifiers but lose the flow pretty fast (idiom) by using confusing jumble of clauses
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2013, 16:25
egmat wrote:
Great explanation Shailesh!!

Sanjeeb, you may refer to this article for more official questions and examples:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Regards,
Payal


30. The proposed simplification of the tax code would repeal or modify a number of
popular tax breaks, including the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so
that income tax rates could be reduced
across the board.
A. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced
B. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates can be
reduced
C. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, which includes the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

D. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so as to reduce income tax rates
E. would repeal and modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

My analysis:
Will is correct as we are not discussing about future in past and also there is no hypothetical situation(so would is out)
From B/C can is the correct choice.So the answer is B.

But can u explain me the usage of which here in option C.A number of popular tax breaks,which includes(So here if which refers to number then includes is fine but if popular tax breaks then it doesn't)..It may be silly one but I got confused..so pls help me out.
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Re: Usage of which [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2013, 17:30
shaileshmishra wrote:
sanjeebpanda wrote:
100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.


If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Please help me out....


Hi,

it is not true that if you have a preposition phrase then it will modify farther noun..
which always modifies closest noun....except in few cases.

the rule is:
Relative Pronouns Modify closest nouns UNLESS
– The phrase between modified entity and modifier provides additional
information about modified entity
– The phrase cannot be placed anywhere else
– The phrase does not create any ambiguity in meaning

few examples:
I killed the snake,which lived in the burrow behind my house.==>which clearly modifies....SNAKE.

I killed the snake with scales ,which lived in the burrow behind my house.===>here which modifies snake and not the scales...because....above conditions follow here....scales is describing snake....you cannot place anywhere else to make sense correctly.....it doesnot create any ambiguity means.....==>this means scales live behind my house....this doesnt makes sense....

now take other example.:
i killed the snake with eggs ,which lay in burrow behind my house......==>here you can see that there is ambiguity....both EGGS and SNAKE can lay in burrow...hence this version of which is wrong....

so in your question ...which correctly modifies the closest noun.....doubt only when you see that it doesnt make sense meaning wise.....and dont consider your prepositional phrase theory as a rule...

hope it helps


41. Bloomingdale‘s store in Santa Monica, which opened this summer, is about 105,000
square feet on two floors, less than one-eighth the size of the chain‘s Manhattan
flagship store.
A. store in Santa Monica, which opened this summer, is about 105,000 square
feet on two floors, less than one-eighth the size of the chain‘s Manhattan
flagship store.

Here store in santa monica,which (which should refer to store only...Am I correct?)
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 01:35
Hi - Yes.

You are correct.

It's talking about the store.

The 'in Santa Monica' just tells you which store we are talking about.

Tough point to grasp - but mega important for GMAT
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 02:31
sanjeebpanda wrote:

30. The proposed simplification of the tax code would repeal or modify a number of
popular tax breaks, including the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so
that income tax rates could be reduced
across the board.
A. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced
B. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates can be
reduced
C. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, which includes the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

D. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so as to reduce income tax rates
E. would repeal and modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

My analysis:
Will is correct as we are not discussing about future in past and also there is no hypothetical situation(so would is out)
From B/C can is the correct choice.So the answer is B.

But can u explain me the usage of which here in option C.A number of popular tax breaks,which includes(So here if which refers to number then includes is fine but if popular tax breaks then it doesn't)..It may be silly one but I got confused..so pls help me out.


hi sanjeeb ,

how can you say that which is referring to number.......which is acting as a pronoun......if replace which with number......sentence is:
number includes the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced===>does that makes sense.....which or what type number includes that....XYZ thing...

now if you relace which with popular tax breaks:
popular tax breaks includes the deductibility of mortgage interest payments(deductibility of mortgage interest is example of tax breaks here)
===>now it does makes sense...==>so number alone doesnt have any meaning here===>so which is refering to popular tax breaks...

hope it helps
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Re: Usage of which [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 02:34
sanjeebpanda wrote:

41. Bloomingdale‘s store in Santa Monica, which opened this summer, is about 105,000
square feet on two floors, less than one-eighth the size of the chain‘s Manhattan
flagship store.
A. store in Santa Monica, which opened this summer, is about 105,000 square
feet on two floors, less than one-eighth the size of the chain‘s Manhattan
flagship store.

Here store in santa monica,which (which should refer to store only...Am I correct?)


this one perfectly done...
good job :)
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 04:24
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KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and



C is the answer.. which is clearly refering to Roman Colosseum and and is required to join to clauses
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Re: Usage of which [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 04:27
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shaileshmishra wrote:
sanjeebpanda wrote:
100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.


If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Please help me out....


Hi,

it is not true that if you have a preposition phrase then it will modify farther noun..
which always modifies closest noun....except in few cases.

the rule is:
Relative Pronouns Modify closest nouns UNLESS
– The phrase between modified entity and modifier provides additional
information about modified entity
– The phrase cannot be placed anywhere else
– The phrase does not create any ambiguity in meaning

few examples:
I killed the snake,which lived in the burrow behind my house.==>which clearly modifies....SNAKE.

I killed the snake with scales ,which lived in the burrow behind my house.===>here which modifies snake and not the scales...because....above conditions follow here....scales is describing snake....you cannot place anywhere else to make sense correctly.....it doesnot create any ambiguity means.....==>this means scales live behind my house....this doesnt makes sense....

now take other example.:
i killed the snake with eggs ,which lay in burrow behind my house......==>here you can see that there is ambiguity....both EGGS and SNAKE can lay in burrow...hence this version of which is wrong....

so in your question ...which correctly modifies the closest noun.....doubt only when you see that it doesnt make sense meaning wise.....and dont consider your prepositional phrase theory as a rule...

hope it helps




nice explanation !! C is correct
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 06:55
Construction of the Roman Colosseum,which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Dear frinds
when we have a specific time........>use simple past tense(began)
which....> correctly modify preceding noun(Roman colosseum)
was.....> is a linking verb so check the parallelism
DO not seperate two verbs that reffer to one subject,with comma
in answer choice (C),the structure of sentence is grammatically correct.....>which was officially known as bla bla bla and was completed bla bla bla
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 15 Jul 2013, 03:31
I get that the OA is C, but what is the difference between began and begun
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 15 Jul 2013, 03:43
Hi,

In grammatical terms, it's this: "began" is past tense and "begun" is the past participle.

What this means in use is that if you are talking about something in the simple past tense, you would always use "began." These sentences are correct:

- I began music lessons when I was 6.
- The story began in the Colonial Period.
- Where were you when the game began?
- Our relationship began when we were in high school.

A participle can't be used all by itself as a verb. Another verb has to go with it. So you can't say something "begun." You have to say it "has begun," "had begun," "was begun," "will be begun," and so on.

"Begun" would be wrong in every one of the examples above and in any other sentence like them.

Here are some correct uses of "begun." Notice the helping verb (the auxiliary verb) that goes along with it. The verbs can be separated--such as by "not"--but they still work together.

- You cannot be seated after the play has begun.
- I have begun a shopping list.
- We have not yet begun to fight.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 15 Jul 2013, 03:54
themask03 wrote:
I get that the OA is C, but what is the difference between began and begun


hi

BEGAN VS BEGUN:

In grammatical terms, it's this: "began" is past tense and "begun" is the past participle.

What this means in use is that if you are talking about something in the simple past tense, you would always use "began." These sentences are correct:

- I began music lessons when I was 6.
- The story began in the Colonial Period.
- Where were you when the game began?
- Our relationship began when we were in high school.

A participle can't be used all by itself as a verb. Another verb has to go with it. So you can't say something "begun." You have to say it "has begun," "had begun," "was begun," "will be begun," and so on.

"Begun" would be wrong in every one of the examples above and in any other sentence like them.

Here are some correct uses of "begun." Notice the helping verb (the auxiliary verb) that goes along with it. The verbs can be separated--such as by "not"--but they still work together.

- You cannot be seated after the play has begun.
- I have begun a shopping list.
- We have not yet begun to fight.

Likewise, if you are using "had" or "have" or another auxiliary, you must use "begun" and not "began." These sentences are all wrong:

WRONG - Have you began your assignment?
WRONG - My shift had began at 3:00.
WRONG - The party has not began yet.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 09 Aug 2013, 21:14
In most of the cases, the following pattern appears:

noun+modifier 1+modifier 2.

so, modifier 2 normally modifies (noun+ modifier 1) and dose not need to touch the noun.

however if there is no modifier 1 but a phrase which dose not modifies the noun, the pattern is wrong

I learn English well, which is spoken by many persons

this is wrong because "well" dose not modifier "English"

I learn English of this region, which is spoken by many persons.

this is correct sentence because "of this region" modifies "English"

in short, in most cases, a noun modifiers modifies "noun+noun modifier" not modifies only the noun and can not touch the noun.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 10 Aug 2013, 04:28
vietmoi999 wrote:
In most of the cases, the following pattern appears:

noun+modifier 1+modifier 2.

so, modifier 2 normally modifies (noun+ modifier 1) and dose not need to touch the noun.

however if there is no modifier 1 but a phrase which dose not modifies the noun, the pattern is wrong

I learn English well, which is spoken by many persons

this is wrong because "well" dose not modifier "English"

I learn English of this region, which is spoken by many persons.

this is correct sentence because "of this region" modifies "English"

in short, in most cases, a noun modifiers modifies "noun+noun modifier" not modifies only the noun and can not touch the noun.


Hi ,
why "I learn English well, which is spoken by many persons" is wrong??
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 05 Sep 2013, 06:54
I do not fully understand, when verbs need to be sequenced (one in past perfect and one in simple past) and when both can be in simple past. In this sentence, I though that when the verb "began" is in the same tense as "completed", it must definitely be wrong, because the first action should have taken place before the second action.

So why is "begun" wrong here...is it because it should have been "had begun"?

Many thanks!
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 26 Oct 2013, 01:32
I might be missing something, can someone let me know if does this satisfy tense rule ?

....began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed..
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially   [#permalink] 26 Oct 2013, 01:32
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