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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially

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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2006, 21:18
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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: relative pronoun problem !!!! [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2011, 02:00
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Relative pronouns such as which, that, who etc. should always touch the noun they are modifying. This is called the relative pronoun touch rule.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was: in this sentence the pronoun 'which' is modifying The Roman Colosseum. This is correct and should be the intented meaning of the sentence.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, offi cially known : In this sentence the ...officially known.. phrase modifies the subject of the main clause i.e. Construction of the Roamn Colesseum. This is wrong.
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Re: WANTED TO KNOW WHY option B is wrong over here [#permalink] New post 14 Dec 2012, 22:47
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Option C is correct.

a) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, Punctuation issue connecting two verbs with a comma i.e began in ..... and, was completed.... you can't connect it with a comma. You create a run on sentence.

b) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

what is the verb here...begun? no because it is a past participle.... it needs a helping verb...other wise the sentence is a fragment.
c)which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and-correct
d) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it- here the modifier implies that construction was known as Flavian Amphitheater because the sentence lacks relative pronoun.
e) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and- same as e

Hope I was able to clarify your query...lets kudos
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Re: Usage of which [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 15:30
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sanjeebpanda wrote:
100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.


If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Please help me out....


Hi,

it is not true that if you have a preposition phrase then it will modify farther noun..
which always modifies closest noun....except in few cases.

the rule is:
Relative Pronouns Modify closest nouns UNLESS
– The phrase between modified entity and modifier provides additional
information about modified entity
– The phrase cannot be placed anywhere else
– The phrase does not create any ambiguity in meaning

few examples:
I killed the snake,which lived in the burrow behind my house.==>which clearly modifies....SNAKE.

I killed the snake with scales ,which lived in the burrow behind my house.===>here which modifies snake and not the scales...because....above conditions follow here....scales is describing snake....you cannot place anywhere else to make sense correctly.....it doesnot create any ambiguity means.....==>this means scales live behind my house....this doesnt makes sense....

now take other example.:
i killed the snake with eggs ,which lay in burrow behind my house......==>here you can see that there is ambiguity....both EGGS and SNAKE can lay in burrow...hence this version of which is wrong....

so in your question ...which correctly modifies the closest noun.....doubt only when you see that it doesnt make sense meaning wise.....and dont consider your prepositional phrase theory as a rule...

hope it helps

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum [#permalink] New post 18 Jul 2012, 10:33
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I think that would be much better to post the question in the classic form and then discuss about it :). So:

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.


A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


So the answer is C because if you cut the fluff you have a clear meaning of the sentence

Construction of the Roman Colosseum.......began in A.D. 69.......AND was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

The other choices do not convey the proper meaning.

;)

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 [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2006, 22:50
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A seems fine as which refers to the Colosseum.

BTW if you never got a chance to see the Colosseum, definitely worth visiting, maybe you guys can take a trip to rome for a vacation after the GMAT :-D
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 [#permalink] New post 03 Nov 2006, 20:58
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ak_idc wrote:
kripalkavi wrote:
another C.
You need the second and to join two independent clauses.


"and" should come before "was"



:wall totally missed that independent clause thing
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Re: relative pronoun problem !!!! [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2011, 02:43
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Relative pronouns are used for modifying a Noun only. Never use a relative pronoun to modify a verb. Examples of relative pronous :

Which
That
Who
When
Whom

Always remember the touch rule for relative pronouns. i.e. the Reltive pronoun should touch the noun its modifying.

Note:
1. Comma + 'which' : should be used when the modifying information that is non essential.
eg. The red car, which i drove when i was in college.

i drove when i was in college : non essential information.
The red : essential information.

2. 'That' : should be used when the information is essential. ( please never use comma with 'That' ).

e.g The car that i painted red.

i painted red : essential information.
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Re: relative pronoun problem !!!! [#permalink] New post 31 May 2011, 06:52
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Ans. C
the subject of the sentence is CONSTRUCTION used two verbs (begun and completed) these verbs should be connected together by conjunction and. Both verbs should be in simple past tense.

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Re: relative pronoun problem !!!! [#permalink] New post 31 May 2011, 07:11
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Baten80 wrote:
Ans. C
the subject of the sentence is CONSTRUCTION used two verbs (begun and completed) these verbs should be connected together by conjunction and. Both verbs should be in simple past tense.


Absolutely!!!

Two independent clause must be connected with a conjunction. Two verbs must be conjoined by the conjunction.

Ans: "C"

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Re: Roman Colosseum [#permalink] New post 18 Jul 2011, 23:16
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abhicoolmax wrote:
gb8 wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


Could somebody please please explain me why BEGAN is correct? Doesn't this need HAD BEGUN?

Seems to me like the reason why C is correct is because it is the "best" of the available choices, and there is NO HAD BEGUN in any of the option, CORRECT? Somebody please explain.


Actually, it'd unnecessary to use "Had Begun" (Past Perfect) in this scenario and there are reasons:
1. A construction can never finish before it begins. So, we already know the sequence of events.
2. completed a decade later; the word "later" clearly signifies that the event of completion occurred after the beginning of the construction.

Modifiers:
which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater
AND
officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater
Are both correct, with latter more elegant and GMAT style. However, we decide the correctness of the sentence on the basis of these modifiers because they both are correct.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
Let's shorten:
Construction began in A.D. 69 was completed later.
Two discrete events with two verbs "began" and "was" makes the sentence wrong. These verbs must be separated by AND.

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
"begun in A.D. 69"-- acts as a modifier for Roman Colosseum; Roman Colosseum begun in AD 69: what does this mean?


Construction during the reign of Vespasian was completed a decade later: decade later of what.
Bad.

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
Correct.
Construction began in A.D. 69 and was completed a decade later.
Construction had begun in A.D. 69 and completed a decade later. Guess this is correct as well.

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
Same error as B's. Roman Colosseum begun in AD 69.

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
", and" -- demands a clause when the later part is a phrase
"was completed a decade later"-- No subject.
Roman Colosseum was begun in AD 69.

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Re: WANTED TO KNOW WHY option B is wrong over here [#permalink] New post 15 Dec 2012, 01:52
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which modifies Colosseum and not construction.

It is NOT the case that, just because there is a prepositional phrase after a noun, the first noun is automatically the modified noun.

Rather, IF there is a noun followed by an essential description (typically accomplished via a short prepositional phrase), then it is POSSIBLE for that first noun to be the main noun to which the following noun modifier applies. But this does not have to be the case - it could still be the case that the noun right before the comma (that is, the noun in the prepositional phrase) is the modified noun.

The presence of a short, essential descriptor simply makes the sentence more flexible. The default is to assume that the immediately preceding noun is the modified noun, unless that flexibility exists, in which case the main noun could be the modified noun. This is an exception - it does not happen that often.

-excerpt from Stacey Koprince on this issue.

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Re: WANTED TO KNOW WHY option B is wrong over here [#permalink] New post 15 Dec 2012, 04:16
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Marcab wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Marcab wrote:
So in simple words, what she means to say is Follow the rule but be flexible.
Am i right?


Yes. Exactly.
However, I do want to emphasis that the RULE is that "which touches the noun preceding it". But it sometime is violated for some hard GMAT question such as this.

Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.
A. Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering
B. Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ended shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber
C. Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and that ends shortly before Emily’s death in 1886 and outnumbering
D. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother, ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, and outnumbering
E. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA is E


Thats the question which showcases my point.
"which" will modify the noun preceding it but in case if the noun before "which" is a part of "prepositional phrase", then it will modify the "noun before the prepositional phrase".
Answer choice
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E
does exactly the same.

Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, which were...bla bla.
Now It will be great if you or anyone explain me when to apply the "touch rule" and when its "exception".

Moreover what does the "officially known as the ....." modify? Is it "construction" or is it "colosseum"?
How to move further with the correct split i.e. "which was officially known as" vs "officially known as"?
Thanks in advance



Marcab,
There are 2 VERY important things that you have to know here:
1. Grammar is flexible. You can't assign very stringent rules and that makes them more painful/interesting. Modifiers are most important to things that they modify and that changes with logic and meaning.
Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.

In this example the "which must touch the preceding noun" is violated just to establish the fact that grammar is not always mechanical.
But that does not mean that the touch rule is completely invalid for prepositional phrases. It still has its weight.
But there is a bigger picture here
ALMOST ALL SENTENCE CORRECTION ANSWER CHOICES ARE WRONG BECAUSE OF MULTIPLE REASONS
If you see the above example "outnumbering" does not apply AT ALL as an ING modifier will always modify the entire preceding clause and that distorts the meaning. So we go with a better "outnumber".

As to your second question:
both "officially known as" and "which is known has" have nothing inherently wrong with them and both refer to the Colosseum not because there are specific rules but simply because "which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" or " officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" CAN NOT refer to "construction". So just because the Colosseum is wrapped in a prep phrase does not make it too impotent to be modified.

But then Colosseum, however is still not the subject. Remember that modifiers can modify nouns. These nouns CAN or CAN NOT be the main subject of the sentence. In this particular sentence the main verbs "was began" and "was completed" can only make sense if the subject is construction.

So bottom line is, Rules do not make subjects/verbs/tenses. Logic and meaning does.
Does this help?

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 03 Jan 2013, 16:42
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C is correct.
Bugun cannot be used alone. It can be used only with had/has/have
and is required at the end to connect the two clauses.
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Re: relative pronoun problem !!!! [#permalink] New post 04 Jun 2013, 00:01
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zuberahmed wrote:
Relative pronouns such as which, that, who etc. should always touch the noun they are modifying. This is called the relative pronoun touch rule.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was: in this sentence the pronoun 'which' is modifying The Roman Colosseum. This is correct and should be the intented meaning of the sentence.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, offi cially known : In this sentence the ...officially known.. phrase modifies the subject of the main clause i.e. Construction of the Roamn Colesseum. This is wrong.


I beg to differ on the point made about Relative pronouns. In some cases relative pronouns can modify a far off noun. Fro e.g.

The committee chose Mr. Smith of Left Block, who was the most experienced member, to lead all the management-related operations.

This sentence is correct, even though the relative pronoun "Who" is not placed next to the Noun "Mr. Smith" that it modifies. Since Mr.Smith is followed by "of Left Block" which is a prepositional phrase , "Mr.Smith of Left Block" becomes a noun phrase. In this case who correctly modifies this noun phrase.
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Usage of which [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 15:15
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100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.

If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Please help me out....

Last edited by Zarrolou on 08 Jul 2013, 21:57, edited 1 time in total.
Merging similar topics.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 04:24
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KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and



C is the answer.. which is clearly refering to Roman Colosseum and and is required to join to clauses
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Re: Usage of which [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 04:27
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shaileshmishra wrote:
sanjeebpanda wrote:
100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.


If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Please help me out....


Hi,

it is not true that if you have a preposition phrase then it will modify farther noun..
which always modifies closest noun....except in few cases.

the rule is:
Relative Pronouns Modify closest nouns UNLESS
– The phrase between modified entity and modifier provides additional
information about modified entity
– The phrase cannot be placed anywhere else
– The phrase does not create any ambiguity in meaning

few examples:
I killed the snake,which lived in the burrow behind my house.==>which clearly modifies....SNAKE.

I killed the snake with scales ,which lived in the burrow behind my house.===>here which modifies snake and not the scales...because....above conditions follow here....scales is describing snake....you cannot place anywhere else to make sense correctly.....it doesnot create any ambiguity means.....==>this means scales live behind my house....this doesnt makes sense....

now take other example.:
i killed the snake with eggs ,which lay in burrow behind my house......==>here you can see that there is ambiguity....both EGGS and SNAKE can lay in burrow...hence this version of which is wrong....

so in your question ...which correctly modifies the closest noun.....doubt only when you see that it doesnt make sense meaning wise.....and dont consider your prepositional phrase theory as a rule...

hope it helps




nice explanation !! C is correct
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 [#permalink] New post 03 Nov 2006, 14:22
another C.
You need the second and to join two independent clauses.
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 [#permalink] New post 03 Nov 2006, 14:41
C ..'and' is required to join two independent clauses and 'which' is used correctly
  [#permalink] 03 Nov 2006, 14:41
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