Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased

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Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2003, 12:30
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Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning

Please explain the differnece between "as a result of Ving" and "result from"?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by fameatop on 19 Sep 2013, 22:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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23 May 2014, 11:56
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jlgdr wrote:
Alternative OE needed here, not one of the posts clearly explains this question. What the hell is atmospheric carbon dioxide anyways?

Cheers!
J

Hi jlgdr,

• Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be
o that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe
 by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.

MEANING

• The sentence states something in contrast to the earlier hypotheses. It says:
• It is possible that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide would cool the globe.
o This increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide resulted from the burning of fossil fuels.
• How can it cool the globe? - by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.

So, now we know what the author wants to convey through the original sentence. Let’s look at the options one by one and find out the errors, if there are any:

OPTION A: Incorrect

‘…increased carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels…’:
Let’s consider a simple example:

India, as a result of win over Australia, moved into the semi-finals.
In this sentence, the action of India moving into the semi-finals happened as a result of India’s win over Australia.
Similarly, option A indicates that the atmospheric carbon dioxide would cool the globe as a result of the burning fossil fuels. This meaning is illogical. The possibility is that the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide would cool the globe.

OPTION B: Correct

The verb-ing modifier ‘resulting’ modifies the preceding noun ‘increased atmospheric carbon dioxide’ and tells us about the reason of the increase in the carbon dioxide.

OPTION C: Incorrect

The result of the combustion of fossil fuels is ‘increased atmospheric carbon dioxide’ not ‘increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere’.
‘Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere’ is wordy in comparison to ‘increased atmospheric carbon dioxide’.

OPTION D: Incorrect

1. Since ‘that’ refers to ‘carbon dioxide’, it is singular. Hence using plural verb ‘increase’ is incorrect.
2. This option states that the carbon dioxide would cool the globe, while the original sentence stated that the increased carbon dioxide would cool the globe. The meaning is changed.

OPTION E: Incorrect

‘…atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from….’ means that the atmospheric carbon dioxide increased something. ‘increased’ is acting as a verb here for the subject ‘that’. It cannot act as a verb-ed modifier because then there would be no verb in the dependent clause starting with ‘that’.

P.S.: ‘atmospheric carbon dioxide’ simply means the carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere.

Hope this helps!
Manyu
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Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2016, 06:48
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techiesam wrote:
OptimusPrepJanielle wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning as a result of + noun comes before a consequence, not to describe the cause of the consequence
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and should say "increases"
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide

There is no doubt that B is the right choice,but the questions needs the student to understand the difference between combustion and burning.Doesn't that require outside knowledge?

The main reason that A is wrong is the usage of "as a result of".

The phrase "as a result of..." cannot directly refer to CO2, but should refer to the formation of CO2 ( either the verb "is formed" directly or the past participle "formed").

The correct construction could be as follows:
"As a result of burning fossile fuels, CO2 is formed." ( adverbial phrase used to refer to the verb "is formed")

Another alternative extension of this usage could be as follows:
Instead of a complete clause, even a past particple "formed" would be acceptable. The structure would then be as follows:
"CO2 formed as a result of burning...."

You are right that people who do not come from mechanical engineering background would not know that combustion is controlled burning. However even for them who consider both these words synonymous, "combustion" would be preferable, since in most cases a concrete noun form is preferred to a gerund form.
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28 Dec 2003, 16:18
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I think C is the best choice.
"increased carbon dioxide resulting from X" is not correct. It should be "increased level of carbon dioxide resulting from X". Since it is expected that cooling would occur in future we should use present continious sentence. If simple past is used then it should be cooling the globe by now.
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06 Jan 2004, 01:51
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chihao wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning

chihao, are you sleeping? people crave for an answer...
meanwhile, i think, the answer is e. c and d do not fit with would. a and b comparing with e are wordy...
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06 Jan 2004, 09:12
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chihao has been gone for nearly a month.

I hope he is doing well...
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08 Jan 2004, 20:05
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Sorry
I had disappeared for a while time.
the official answer is B.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2014, 01:30
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Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of --- increased ACD resulting from the blah blah.. it is not increased ACD resulting from burning fossil fuel -- it is a general fact that burning fossil fuel generate CO2 -- how you can say increased ACD in this context.

(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning (acd that already increased from burning fossil fuel would blah blah )

I think Answer must be E.
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29 Nov 2003, 13:09
chihao wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning

Please explain the differnece between "as a result of Ving" and "result from"?

little difference in meaning...but there is a difference in how we use it...

1. Y happened resulting from X happening

2. X happened. as a result , y happened

"As a result " is generally "Set off" by a comma in its usage

As a result, the 49ers had to play without their regular quarter back.

The 49ers , as a result, had to play without their regular quarter back.

we cant really use "resulting from" here...

i think here B is the best answer

thanks
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02 Dec 2003, 05:54
i will choose B.
D and E seem unidiomatic coz they use "from burning"... never heard.
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03 Jan 2004, 19:18
Think B is the answer.

Dont think that increased CO2, or increased "level" of CO2 makes any diff in the paragraph.

In GMAT, I have seldom seen 2 "-ing" in the same sentence.
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06 Jan 2004, 08:01
Go with B.

"increased atmospheric carbon dioxide" is the most concise rather than
"carbon dioxide in the atmosphere" - C
"carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase" - D
"atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased "- E

Btwn A and B, "resulting" goes with "would".

Official ans ?
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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16 May 2014, 13:38
Alternative OE needed here, not one of the posts clearly explains this question. What the hell is atmospheric carbon dioxide anyways?

Cheers!
J
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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23 May 2014, 22:47
Thanks Manyu, I totally missed the error explained by you for option E. Really second that is introducing structural error and eating the verb of preceding subject ACD.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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26 May 2015, 09:09
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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27 May 2015, 08:55
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning as a result of + noun comes before a consequence, not to describe the cause of the consequence
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and should say "increases"
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2016, 09:12
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2016, 04:12
Experts please throw some light on this :-
WHY option A is not correct ?
when should I prefer " resulting from " to " as a result of" ?( with an example, please!)
thanks.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2016, 05:19
OptimusPrepJanielle wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning as a result of + noun comes before a consequence, not to describe the cause of the consequence
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and should say "increases"
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide

There is no doubt that B is the right choice,but the questions needs the student to understand the difference between combustion and burning.Doesn't that require outside knowledge?
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2016, 08:51
I would still go for C.
It is wordy in comparison to B,but it signifies continuous tense. The Carbon dioxide would be ever increasing ..
Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased   [#permalink] 15 Aug 2016, 08:51
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