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Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early

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Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2008, 09:09
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A
B
C
D
E

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Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted the processes of modernization and rationalization would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon of increasing importance.

A) would gradually undermine it
B) to be a gradual undermining of it
C) would be a gradual undermining of ethnicity
D) to gradually undermine ethnicity
E) gradually undermining it



Please explain your answer.
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2008, 11:20
the OA is A! :) I have a little trick that i'll share with you. Normally, whenever you see the word "predict", you know that the word "will" will have to follow eventually. However, because this prediction occurred in the past, you will have to convert the "will" into its past form, which is "would." That should narrow your answer choices down to A and C. Obviously, C is clumsy, so we're left with option A.
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2008, 15:05
tarek99 wrote:
Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted the processes of modernization and rationalization would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon of increasing importance.

A) would gradually undermine it
B) to be a gradual undermining of it
C) would be a gradual undermining of ethnicity
D) to gradually undermine ethnicity
E) gradually undermining it

Please explain your answer.


BCD all are either too wordy or ungramitical.

Only A and E remains. E is not complete. There is no verb at all in the first clause. It was a predicition in the past but the things did not move according to the prediction. This is an unfulfilled prediction and, therefore, the verb "would" is correct.
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2008, 17:56
Isn't the "it" in a) ambiguous ? What is the "it" referring to Modernization, rationalization or ethnicity ?
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2008, 19:33
bhushangiri wrote:
Isn't the "it" in a) ambiguous ? What is the "it" referring to Modernization, rationalization or ethnicity ?


I was thinking the same thing on this one. "It" doesn't seem really clear - it could refer to scholarly wisdom or ethnicity so that lead me to look at those answer choices ending with Ethnicity even though it seems odd. I dunno about this one because "it" doesn't seem clear.

Hoping someone can clear this one up...
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 24 Aug 2008, 00:38
tarek99 wrote:
Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted the processes of modernization and rationalization would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon of increasing importance.

A) would gradually undermine it
B) to be a gradual undermining of it
C) would be a gradual undermining of ethnicity
D) to gradually undermine ethnicity
E) gradually undermining it



Please explain your answer.


Guys, the main sentence is missing "that" after predicted. With the sentence as is, D makes more sense that any other choice.
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 24 Aug 2008, 00:59
sanjay_gmat wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted the processes of modernization and rationalization would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon of increasing importance.

A) would gradually undermine it
B) to be a gradual undermining of it
C) would be a gradual undermining of ethnicity
D) to gradually undermine ethnicity
E) gradually undermining it



Please explain your answer.


Guys, the main sentence is missing "that" after predicted. With the sentence as is, D makes more sense that any other choice.


I see what you mean, however, we already have a "that" before "predict", so it wouldn't look nice to have another "that" after "predict." I think you would be correct if we never had "that" before. Also, the prediction in this sentence is referring to an event that took place in the past, so "would" is necessary. If the prediction is about an event that didn't occur yet, then we will need the "will". hope that helps
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 24 Aug 2008, 02:27
tarek99 wrote:
sanjay_gmat wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted the processes of modernization and rationalization would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon of increasing importance.

A) would gradually undermine it
B) to be a gradual undermining of it
C) would be a gradual undermining of ethnicity
D) to gradually undermine ethnicity
E) gradually undermining it



Please explain your answer.


Guys, the main sentence is missing "that" after predicted. With the sentence as is, D makes more sense that any other choice.


I see what you mean, however, we already have a "that" before "predict", so it wouldn't look nice to have another "that" after "predict." I think you would be correct if we never had "that" before. Also, the prediction in this sentence is referring to an event that took place in the past, so "would" is necessary. If the prediction is about an event that didn't occur yet, then we will need the "will". hope that helps


I don't think it's a matter of will/would ( i have seen this in your previous post too). The sentence is:

Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted ....(WHAT)

predicted MUST be followed by a noun.

So THAT is a must after predicted in the sentence, if A has to be true.
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 24 Aug 2008, 02:39
ok, i'll try to answer your question. In order to understand what the sentence is really saying, it will be easier to understand if you take away all the prepositional phrases. Here is the sentence without the prepositional phrases:

Contrary to the scholarly wisdom...that predicted the processes....would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon....

So that should answer the "what" for you. The prediction is that the processes would gradually undermine ethnicity.
as for "it", it is referring to "ethnicity." How do I know that? well, if you take a look at the sentence that starts with "contrary", that part of the sentence is structured as a modifier. Any pronoun you see in a modifier will always be referring to the subject of the main clause attached to the modifier. So what is our subject of the main clause attached to the modifier? it's "ethnicity."

Does this help?
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 24 Aug 2008, 03:10
tarek99 wrote:
ok, i'll try to answer your question. In order to understand what the sentence is really saying, it will be easier to understand if you take away all the prepositional phrases. Here is the sentence without the prepositional phrases:

Contrary to the scholarly wisdom...that predicted the processes....would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon....

So that should answer the "what" for you. The prediction is that the processes would gradually undermine ethnicity.
as for "it", it is referring to "ethnicity." How do I know that? well, if you take a look at the sentence that starts with "contrary", that part of the sentence is structured as a modifier. Any pronoun you see in a modifier will always be referring to the subject of the main clause attached to the modifier. So what is our subject of the main clause attached to the modifier? it's "ethnicity."

Does this help?


Tarek, you haven't answered the question. You spent more lines to explain "it/ethnicity".

Now, going back to the question.

Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted..

The that in above line is acting as a pronoun that modifies "scholarly wisdom". So it's the scholarly wisdom that predicted. Rewriting :

Scholarly wisdom predicted ....(what?)

It predicted "that" .......

So, "that" is needed after "predicted" to make the rest of the sentence a phrase that acts as a noun.

comments?
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 24 Aug 2008, 04:53
sanjay_gmat wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
ok, i'll try to answer your question. In order to understand what the sentence is really saying, it will be easier to understand if you take away all the prepositional phrases. Here is the sentence without the prepositional phrases:

Contrary to the scholarly wisdom...that predicted the processes....would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon....

So that should answer the "what" for you. The prediction is that the processes would gradually undermine ethnicity.
as for "it", it is referring to "ethnicity." How do I know that? well, if you take a look at the sentence that starts with "contrary", that part of the sentence is structured as a modifier. Any pronoun you see in a modifier will always be referring to the subject of the main clause attached to the modifier. So what is our subject of the main clause attached to the modifier? it's "ethnicity."

Does this help?



I did explain what was the prediction. I've highlighted that part on my last post.

Tarek, you haven't answered the question. You spent more lines to explain "it/ethnicity".

Now, going back to the question.

Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted..

The that in above line is acting as a pronoun that modifies "scholarly wisdom". So it's the scholarly wisdom that predicted. Rewriting :

Scholarly wisdom predicted ....(what?)

It predicted "that" .......





So, "that" is needed after "predicted" to make the rest of the sentence a phrase that acts as a noun.

comments?



I did explain what was the prediction. I've highlighted that part from my last post in red for you. So, to write it again for you:

Contrary to the scholarly wisdom that predicted the processes would gradually undermine ethnicity.
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 24 Aug 2008, 05:14
sanjay_gmat wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted the processes of modernization and rationalization would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon of increasing importance.

A) would gradually undermine it
B) to be a gradual undermining of it
C) would be a gradual undermining of ethnicity
D) to gradually undermine ethnicity
E) gradually undermining it



Please explain your answer.


Guys, the main sentence is missing "that" after predicted. With the sentence as is, D makes more sense that any other choice.



I'm not really sure if the sentence needs a "that". e.g. The philosophers predicted a victory for King Arthur.

Where I struggled (as did others) was the "it" part. I thought long and hard and reached answer A via POE.

Tarek - good catch on the predicted/would. I didn't think of it explicitly, but I knew a would needed to be there.
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 24 Aug 2008, 06:55
stopper5 wrote:
sanjay_gmat wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
Contrary to the scholarly wisdom of the 1950's and early 1960's that predicted the processes of modernization and rationalization would gradually undermine it, ethnicity is a worldwide phenomenon of increasing importance.

A) would gradually undermine it
B) to be a gradual undermining of it
C) would be a gradual undermining of ethnicity
D) to gradually undermine ethnicity
E) gradually undermining it



Please explain your answer.


Guys, the main sentence is missing "that" after predicted. With the sentence as is, D makes more sense that any other choice.



I'm not really sure if the sentence needs a "that". e.g. The philosophers predicted a victory for King Arthur.

Where I struggled (as did others) was the "it" part. I thought long and hard and reached answer A via POE.

Tarek - good catch on the predicted/would. I didn't think of it explicitly, but I knew a would needed to be there.


You example sentence indeed doesn't need a "that" because "a victory" is a noun by itself. Here, without that, it sounds as if the wisdom predicted the processes, since the processes is a noun. Here, a phrase should act as a noun. Hence a that is needed. In fact, your example sentence shows that a that is needed here.
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Re: SC: interesting problem [#permalink] New post 11 Mar 2011, 18:32
raconteur wrote:
bhushangiri wrote:
Isn't the "it" in a) ambiguous ? What is the "it" referring to Modernization, rationalization or ethnicity ?


I was thinking the same thing on this one. "It" doesn't seem really clear - it could refer to scholarly wisdom or ethnicity so that lead me to look at those answer choices ending with Ethnicity even though it seems odd. I dunno about this one because "it" doesn't seem clear.

Hoping someone can clear this one up...


This question is a very old GMAT(paper) question which doesnt reflect the lingo GMAT tests now. I am quoting things here from MGMAT here...

This is something which has been quoted somewhere else.
When you look at idiomatic usage, you have to look at the complete structure. In this case, we have "that predicted X [noun] would / will Y [noun or verb-noun]." So that matches with what we've got here.

The structure that you use for the sentence about the dollar is different - there, I say "X [noun] is predicted to Y [noun or verb-noun]."

FYI - one reason I say these aren't the best source of study: in recent years, they have stayed away from introducing subject and (often) object pronouns before the antecedent itself is introduced. But, in this case, the correct answer does place the object pronoun "it" before the introduction of the antecedent, ethnicity.

The old paper ones are SO old though that they can be vastly different from what you'll see today (the last time the test was given in paper format was 1997).

For instance, nowadays, they strongly avoid using subject pronouns before the antecedent in a sentence, and they generally avoid using object pronouns before the antecedent. But, here, they do use an object pronoun before the antecedent. You're less likely to see that today.
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Re: SC: interesting problem   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2011, 18:32
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