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CR - US High school graduates earnings

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CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 17 Jan 2008, 07:34
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In the United States, adults who don't graduate high school earn on average 35% less than adults who do graduate high school. No other industrialized nation has such a severe earnings gap; adults without a HS diploma typically earn about 80 percent of the salaries earned by high school graduates in nations across Asia, Europe and elsewhere. These figures clearly indicate that American high schools are the world's best at teaching advanced skills to their students.

Each of the following statements, if true, weaken the author's claim EXCEPT:

A. Of all the industrialized nations, the United States has the lowest proportion of specialized tradesmen, people who often lack high school diplomas yet earn high salaries for their skills.
B. Due to recent global changes, in many newly industrialized nations advances in education precede advances in business infrastructure, resulting in a disparity between skilled employees and the jobs which would require these skills.
C. Unlike in the United States, in certain other industrialized nations it is possible for a student to attend a university without earning a high school diploma.
D. A survey of sixth graders around the world revealed that children in North America spend, on average, fewer hours per week studying than do their counterparts in Europe.
E. The unemployment rate for adults in the United States who didn't finish high school is significantly higher than the rate for their counterparts in most other industrialized nations.
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2008, 00:44
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[u]Conclusion: American high schools are the world's best at teaching advanced skills to their students.
Since this is a EXCEPT question, rephrase it: Each of the following statements, if true, does not weaken the author's claim:
[/u]
A. Of all the industrialized nations, the United States has the lowest proportion of specialized tradesmen, people who often lack high school diplomas yet earn high salaries for their skills. [This Weakens the argument – Eliminate it]

B. Due to recent global changes, in many newly industrialized nations advances in education precede advances in business infrastructure, resulting in a disparity between skilled employees and the jobs which would require these skills. [The disparity between Jobs and required skills is outside the scope of the argument – Eliminate it]

C. Unlike in the United States, in certain other industrialized nations it is possible for a student to attend a university without earning a high school diploma. [Irrelevant to the argument – Eliminate it]

D. A survey of sixth graders around the world revealed that children in North America spend, on average, fewer hours per week studying than do their counterparts in Europe. [Strengthen the argument - Hold it]


E. The unemployment rate for adults in the United States who didn't finish high school is significantly higher than the rate for their counterparts in most other industrialized nations.
[Unemployment rate is outside the scope of the argument – Eliminate it]


Answer: D
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 23 Jan 2008, 18:52
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JCLEONES wrote:
In the United States, adults who don't graduate high school earn on average 35% less than adults who do graduate high school. No other industrialized nation has such a severe earnings gap; adults without a HS diploma typically earn about 80 percent of the salaries earned by high school graduates in nations across Asia, Europe and elsewhere. These figures clearly indicate that American high schools are the world's best at teaching advanced skills to their students.

Each of the following statements, if true, weaken the author's claim EXCEPT:

A. Of all the industrialized nations, the United States has the lowest proportion of specialized tradesmen, people who often lack high school diplomas yet earn high salaries for their skills.

A attacks the second premise b/c A shows that adults who, without high school diploma, is still get high salary are the least .
A-out

B. Due to recent global changes, in many newly industrialized nations advances in education precede advances in business infrastructure, resulting in a disparity between skilled employees and the jobs which would require these skills.

B offers the alternative factor that leads to high schools, in other nations, are not best at teaching advanced skills to their student. Therefore, B weaken the conclusion
B out

C. Unlike in the United States, in certain other industrialized nations it is possible for a student to attend a university without earning a high school diploma.

C offers no clue about the relation: high school diploma - high salary-best at teaching advanced skill. C is out of scope. Therefore, C does not affect the argument. Bing go!
C-in


D. A survey of sixth graders around the world revealed that children in North America spend, on average, fewer hours per week studying than do their counterparts in Europe.

D directly attacks the conclusion by showing that American High school student get advanced skill outside the school.
D-out

E. The unemployment rate for adults in the United States who didn't finish high school is significantly higher than the rate for their counterparts in most other industrialized nations.

E attacks the second premise by saying that in US adults who have not HS diploma earns nothing, because they are unemployed. So It is impossiple that they earn 80% salary by others in other industried nation.
E out

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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 17 Jan 2008, 07:52
Each of the following statements, if true, weaken the author's claim EXCEPT:

A. Weakens, since the US has a lower porportion of specialized workers this will affect the average salaries compared.
B. Weakens, since the US could be used as an example of a country who's education precedes business infrastructure change.
C. Weakens, the only thing compared were HS salaries but if you can get a college degree w/o a HS then this would affect the conclusion.
D. Correct, this answer doesn't support or weaken the conclusion since it is talking about pre-HS. You shouldn't over assume that if NA is smarter in grade school that means they are smarter in college (which would weaken the conclusion).
E. Weakens, since averaging of a 0 would highly affect the average of the US.
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 17 Jan 2008, 08:04
I think it could be A

JCLEONES wrote:
In the United States, adults who don't graduate high school earn on average 35% less than adults who do graduate high school. No other industrialized nation has such a severe earnings gap; adults without a HS diploma typically earn about 80 percent of the salaries earned by high school graduates in nations across Asia, Europe and elsewhere. These figures clearly indicate that American high schools are the world's best at teaching advanced skills to their students.

Each of the following statements, if true, weaken the author's claim EXCEPT:

A. Of all the industrialized nations, the United States has the lowest proportion of specialized tradesmen, people who often lack high school diplomas yet earn high salaries for their skills.
B. Due to recent global changes, in many newly industrialized nations advances in education precede advances in business infrastructure, resulting in a disparity between skilled employees and the jobs which would require these skills.
C. Unlike in the United States, in certain other industrialized nations it is possible for a student to attend a university without earning a high school diploma.
D. A survey of sixth graders around the world revealed that children in North America spend, on average, fewer hours per week studying than do their counterparts in Europe.
E. The unemployment rate for adults in the United States who didn't finish high school is significantly higher than the rate for their counterparts in most other industrialized nations.
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 17 Jan 2008, 08:41
Im with D for the reasoning above.

It does not talk about HS at all which is the point of the argument.
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 17 Jan 2008, 13:06
I agree with D.
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 17 Jan 2008, 21:19
D fr me

OA???????
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2008, 08:35
JCLEONES wrote:
In the United States, adults who don't graduate high school earn on average 35% less than adults who do graduate high school. No other industrialized nation has such a severe earnings gap; adults without a HS diploma typically earn about 80 percent of the salaries earned by high school graduates in nations across Asia, Europe and elsewhere. These figures clearly indicate that American high schools are the world's best at teaching advanced skills to their students.

Each of the following statements, if true, weaken the author's claim EXCEPT:

A. Of all the industrialized nations, the United States has the lowest proportion of specialized tradesmen, people who often lack high school diplomas yet earn high salaries for their skills.
B. Due to recent global changes, in many newly industrialized nations advances in education precede advances in business infrastructure, resulting in a disparity between skilled employees and the jobs which would require these skills.
C. Unlike in the United States, in certain other industrialized nations it is possible for a student to attend a university without earning a high school diploma.
D. A survey of sixth graders around the world revealed that children in North America spend, on average, fewer hours per week studying than do their counterparts in Europe.
E. The unemployment rate for adults in the United States who didn't finish high school is significantly higher than the rate for their counterparts in most other industrialized nations.


In my view E strengthens the conclusion because if the unemployment rate for adults in the United States who dont finish high schools is significantly higher than the rate for their counterparts in most other industrialized nations it means that such adults couldnt compete with those who had compeleted their high school in US. This means that the degree of disparity between the two groups is higher compared to their counterparts in Asia, Europe and elsewhere.

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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 23 Jan 2008, 03:16
I believe that B is completely out of scope and thus doesn't weaken the argument at all. the others could weaken in some way the argument, although they are not really exhaustive. is OA B?
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 23 Jan 2008, 21:30
Conclusion/Claim is:

Without HS diploma, Americans earn 80% of ( adults with HS diploma in Asia+Europe+elsewhere) and based on this fact, it claims that HS diploma of America is better than HS diploma of other nations.

So it's comparing the salaries of Non-HS diploma people and stating that HS diploma of America is better in teaching advanced skills.

The one which strengthens this claim is :

Either A or E.

Rest all, if true definitely Weaken the claim made by author.

Out of A and E,

A is suggesting that there are very few people who don't go to high school and yet earn high salaries. Which means that if they would go to HS they are going to earn much higher, indicating HS diploma standards are really high in US compared to other nations.

E also weaken because it indicates that people in other nations get the employment even without going to HS where as in US they don't without HS diploma. Which means that without HS diploma also the skill levels in other nations are stronger. So HS diploma of US is not "the best"

Thus answer should be "A".

"A"
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 23 Jan 2008, 21:34
E. What is the OA?
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 24 Jan 2008, 13:32
Expert's post
D.

D. A survey of sixth graders around the world revealed that children in North America spend, on average, fewer hours per week studying than do their counterparts in Europe.

time spending for studying means nothing for the argument.

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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 24 Jan 2008, 14:45
JCLEONES, What is the OA?
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 24 Jan 2008, 19:08
whats the OA dude?

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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 26 Jan 2008, 00:32
should be A
Quote:
A. Of all the industrialized nations, the United States has the lowest proportion of specialized tradesmen, people who often (not always) lack high school diplomas yet earn high salaries for their skills.


this might mean that even HS graduates may get a pay that is not commensurate with their skills. Since A says the proportion of such people is greater in other nations, it may imply that the quality of education in the US is higher.

I agree D is neutral, but A strengthens the argument.
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2008, 09:30
FYI, OA is D.
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Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2008, 11:34
The OA is D

eyunni wrote:
FYI, OA is D.
Re: CR - US High school graduates earnings   [#permalink] 28 Jan 2008, 11:34
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