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Comprehensive CR Guide - whiplash2411's BIG BANG CR Guide (comprehensive list of question types, identification techniques, approach techniques and correct/incorrect answer choice justifications, included two examples for each of the types mentioned)
-PLEASE NOTE- These are not my notes, but I found them and saved them long back. I just started studying GMAT and I found these extremely useful. Thanks to the writer.
Critical Reasoning Only spend 1 min and 45 seconds on each question
Parts of the a Critical Reasoning Question 1. Stimulus 2. A Premise: gives reason why something should be believed 3. A conclusion: is a statement that follows from one or more reasons 4. Assumption 5. Question Analyzing the Stimulus: As you read the stimulus, focus on making a quick analysis of the topic under discussion. Note that the stimulus could speak on any given topic. This is not a major concern
Primary objective #1 When reading the Critical Reasoning stimuli, seek whether or not it is a fact or argument being dealt with. If it is an Argument (a statement that is derived from one or more pieces of in formation)- it must have a Premise and Conclusion If it is a Fact (a collection of statements without a conclusion)
Premise Conclusion Additional Premise words Counter Premise Words Because Thus Furthermore But Since Therefore Moreover Yet For Hence Bedsides However For example Consequently ("ly") In addition On the other hand for the reason that As a result What’s more Admittedly in that So, If In contrast given that Accordingly Although as indicated by Clearly Even though due to Must Be Still owing to Shows(is a action word) that Whereas this can be seen from Conclude (is a action word) that In spite of we know Follows that Despite For this reason After All -Anything that supports a claim that was made is a premise -An action word followed by the word THAT is a conclusion -Additional Premise words- sometimes the author will make an argument and use this to add more evidence. It is not necessary -Counter Premise words-(adds an alternative) is more or less a challenge to a stated piece of evidence mentioned in the stimuli
Primary Objective # 2 - If the stimulus contains an argument identify the conclusion of the argument through key words. If the stimulus contains a fact, examine the fact - The conclusion/premise indicator form: test makers will sometimes arrange the premise and the conclusion key words close to each other to confuse you. Both words are marked by a comma for separation, so what is in the comma is the Premise while what is outside is the conclusion, vice versa. Example: Therefore, since higher debt has forced consumers to lower their savings, banks now have less money to loan. -The conclusion is- therefore.... banks... -The premise is- since higher debt has.... In cases where you can’t identify a conclusion or a premise, don’t automatically think it is a fact, use the install your own indicators to make sense of the stimuli until it works out. This is a rear case.
For more complex arguments there are two or more conclusions. In this case the statement can be both a conclusion for one argument and a premise for another. Basic Argument Complex Argument
Conclusion Conclusion- which becomes the premise for another stated conclusion
Example: Because the Vikings have the best quarterback in football, they therefore have the best offense in football. Because they have the best offense in football, they will win the super bowl next year.
Premise- Because the Vikings have the best quarterback in football Sub conclusion- they therefore have the best offense in football Main conclusion- they will win the super bowl next year.
View Points in Arguments: One famous construction is to raise a viewpoint at the beginning of the stimulus and then disagree with it immediately after. These stimuli often begin like this: Some people propose....., YET.. Some critics claim......., HOWEVER... Some people believe..., BUT.... Example: Some people believe that the country’s revenue tax should increase. Such a tax, however,(opposite part of the claim is here) would do more harm than good. Pg 31 - The conclusion for these paragraphs will typically be the opposite of the claim stated by the sentence. LOOK FOR THE COUNTER PREMISE. Some..... Example:... "Tax would do more harm than good"
Primary Objective # 3 Read closely; know what the author just said.
Inference and Assumption An Inference of the argument means to find an item that must be true given the information in the stimuli An assumption is a piece of evidence or premise not stated- It is made up of similar words as the conclusion.
The question stems and Answer choice
The question specifies the task you must perform in order to get credit for the problem. Questions ask you to: Identify details of the stimulus, describe the structure of the argument, strengthen and weaken, identify inferences and assumptions, recognize errors of reasoning, reconcile conflicts, finding arguments that are identical in structure.
Though the question stems are different, they often ask the same thing. Learn each question type and become familiar with the characteristics of each type.
Primary Objective # 4 Carefully read, and identify the question stem. Do not assume that certain words are automatically associated with certain question types.
The question stem determines the nature of the correct answer. Ten types of questions: 1. Must be true/Inferred/Support- Identify a answer that is best proven by the stimulus 2. Main point-Find the primary conclusion made by the author 3. Assumption- Find the assumption 4. Strengthen/support- find an answer that supports the authors conclusion 5. Weekend- undermine the conclusion 6. Resolve Paradox Method of reasoning- there is a contradiction. Need to explain something 7. Flaw- What is the error made in the reasoning 8. Parallel Reasoning- Identify an answer that is made up in the same pattern of reasoning as the stimulus. 9. Evaluate the argument- Find the answer choice that allows you to determine the logical validity of the argument
Note: "Support" for Must be true and Strengthening are different. For Strengthening- the support is from the answer to the conclusion For Must be true- the support is from the Stimuli to the answer. Primarily you are in search of a Conclusion
Primary Objective # 5 After reading the question stem, paraphrase it. Primary Objective#6 Separate the answer choices into Contenders and losers. This helps to discard answers with extreme words.
Type 1 Must Be true Questions
This type of question required you to select an answer that is proven by the information in the stimuli. When selecting an answer, you must find the proof that supports your answer in the stimulus. Select the answer that is most clearly supported by what you read. Read the text and understand the facts Example: If the statements above are true... Which of the following must also be true.....
- This is particular for questions where you need to find the Conclusion and Inference - Make sure the language use in the answer is the same as the stimulus. If it speaks about SOME..., the answer can not be correct if it talks about MOST or ALL.....
Note Two types of Answers that will always be correct for this type of question: 1. Paraphrased answers- One of the answers in the answer choice either state exactly or restate using similar words, part of the stimulus 2. Answers that are the sum of two or more statements in the stimuli. In other word, the stimulus is repeated with links made to each sentence. (pg79) - Avoid Answers that are Exaggerated answers, Partially true answers, answers with New Information, Reverse wording in the Answer- e.g. The stimulus states "many people have some type of security". The opposite is " Some people have many types of security. Note: the order of the words is reversed though it sounds the same, or a sentence could be read backward. Find the Conclusion The conclusion: should link all the evidence together with nothing left out. If any answer choice has piece left out, it is not correct. It does not have extreme words such as Never, Always, All.
Type 2 Main Point question
This question asks you to summarize the authors’ point of view. The answer you select must follow the information in the stimulus, i.e. "Must be true question." Therefore, the answer must not only be correct, it must also summarize the authors’ point of view. - The answer to this type of question is the CONCLUSION REPHRASED.
Wrong answer type: Answers that repeat the premise or miss the authors point. Example of question: Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the argument?
Type 3 Strengthening and Assumption
(A:) Assumption Assumption question ask you to identify a statement that the argument assumes. It is an unstated premise of the argument - AN ADDED PREMISE THAT USES SIMILAR WORDS TO THE CONCLUSION. Additional words will rule out that answer as correct. Assumption answers contain statements the author must believe in order for the conclusion to be valid and protects the argument from statements that would undermine the conclusion.
Types of assumption questions: 1. The argument assumes that? 2. Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above? 3. The conclusion of the argument above cannot be true unless which of the following is true? Note: Two roles of the Assumption: - Supporter role: where the assumption connects the premise and conclusion Example: All male citizens of Athens had the right to vote. Therefore, Sacrotes had the right to vote. The assumption is that Sacrotes is a male. -Defender role: These assumptions contain statements that eliminate ideas or assertions that would undermine the conclusion. They show that the possible source of attack has been eliminated. - Find an answer choice that takes the conclusion and put the word "NOT" into it or takes it out of the conclusion sentence. All this does is provide an answer that eliminates the conclusion from exposure to criticism, thus showing that a possible source of attack has been eliminated.
Argument Example: People who read a lot are more intelligent than other people. Thus, reading must cause a person to be intelligent. This is a statement that can attack the conclusion/ hence assumption- "sleeping more that eight hours does not cause a person to be intelligent. Pg 180. -Any assumption answer the begins with, OR HAVE the words "At Least....." is correct.
You may also see a blank space preceded by a premise indicator example, "..because......", "..Since...." The blank is always at the end of the stimulus. With this, you are technically being asked to fill in a missing premise which of course is the Assumption (unstated premise).
(B): Strengthening the Argument This asks you to identity the answer choice that best supports the argument, The Correct answer does not necessarily justify the argument, nor is the correct answer necessarily an assumption. The correct answer helps the answer choice in some way.
You are strengthening the conclusion. Ask yourself if the answer choice will assist in some way.
- This question type requires you to find the missing link between a premise and the conclusion (similar to finding the assumption), which when found will strengthen the conclusion. Rules: 1. Stimulus has an Argument 2. Focus on the conclusion. All answers impact the conclusion.
Strengthen: - Questions ask you to support the argument in anyway possible - Uses words such as: Support, strengthen, helps, justifies.
How to strengthen: - Find an answer that helps the author’s conclusion in some way. For Causality and Strengthening questions: The answer will - Eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect. One cause should be - Show that when the cause occurs the effect occurs and vice versa - No reversed relationship
Type 4 Weakening Question
When you are weakening you are targeting the assumption (Undermine). These types of question ask you to undermine the argument stated by the conclusion. Here is were the answer choice affect the Stimuli For these questions an argument will always be present with a conclusion attached. Therefore, know the specifics of the conclusion. Identification words for Weakening: Refute, attack, undermine, argue against, cast doubt, challenge, damage, counter, call into question, weaken.
How to weaken an Argument: - Always ask (when choosing the correct answer), if this choice will make the author reconsider his position or respond to something. - Look at the conclusion, and while keeping the assumption in mind, find something that takes away from what is said. - Weakening Scenarios: 1. The author fails to consider all the possibilities 2. Comparison of items that are different (flaw) 3. Open conclusion
Conclusion: Look to see whether the Premise support the conclusion properly. - Find the assumption- The weakener will challenge the assumption. USE THE DEFENDER RULE "USE OF NOT" - The correct answer will show that that conclusion fails to account for something or does not follow from the stated premise. The author may fail to consider other possibilities, if you realize this and an answer choice points it out, that is the correct choice. Also, there may be an improper comparison made. The argument may even be left open for attack. Note: The wrong answer choice would be to choose an answer that is completely opposite of what is stated. Also Out of scope answers. Shell Game answers are similar to the conclusion in wording but may touch on a different component or somewhat out of scope.
Type 5 Resolve the Paradox - Address the facts
-Each stimulus presents a situation where two ideas or occurrences contradict each other. -There is no conclusion as the author is not trying to persuade you, he/she is only stating the facts. The correct answer will actively resolve the paradox. It will allow both sides to be factually correct and it will explain how the situation came into being.
Incorrect answers: 1. If one side is tackled and not the other 2. If two items in the stimuli are similar and the answer choice states the difference
-Words used to show opposing sides are: But, However, Yet, Although, Surprisingly - Words to show it is a paradox: Explain, Reconcile, Resolve -Remember you are looking for an answer the resolves the Paradox (both issues). The correct answer can not just speak on one issue and not the other. If you see this, it is wrong. Ask yourself what could have lead to that issue. Pay attention to the language and words used in the stimuli. Make sure it is the same in the answer choice. A resolve paradox question would present 4 Wrong answers and one Correct answer. This correct answer may either 1. Have no impact on the situation 2. Confuse the situation. Question type 6 Evaluate the argument pg 287
The question stem will ask "which of the following would be most important to know in evaluating the hypothesis in the passage." Each answer choice is posed in the form of a question. Now you must find an answer that is on both extremes of the question, and target them back at the conclusion to see if it both takes away from it or supports it depending on which extreme you deal with. If you get a Yes/No effect that is the correct answer. Key words to note as identifiers of this question type" Evaluate, Judge. To derive the correct answer for these questions, use the variance test. - This test allows you to select an answer that when you ask that question will give you an answer on both extremes, test YES (positive)and then Test No(a negative) - All you are doing is asking the question, when you select an answer, that when YES, does the conclusion fulfill itself or when does it when No - If you get NO and (NO wrong) - YES and YES (Wrong) - YES and NO (Correct).
Type 7 Method of Reasoning and Flaw in Reasoning
The method of reasoning question requires you to select the answer choice that best describes the method used by the author to make the argument. Your aim is to identify the logical organization of the argument. Example of questions: 1. The method of the argument is to 2. The argument proceeds by 3. The argument derives its conclusion by 4. Which of the following describes the technique of reasoning used above? Use the information in the stimulus to prove or disapprove each answer choice. Flaw in the Reasoning Watch for Premise and Conclusion indicators as they will help identify the structure of the argument When indicating that a flaw is present in the argument the test makers will use phrases such as " the reasoning is flawed". Examples are: 1. Which of the following most accurately describes the flaw in the arguments reasoning 2. The reasoning above is flawed because it fails to recognize that The correct answer will identify the error in the authors reasoning and then describe that error in general terms. Beware of answers that describe a portion of the stimulus but fail to identify the error - Think about the structure of the argument before attacking the answers. If the answer choice described an event that did not occur in the stimulus- THAT ANSWER IS WRONG - Watch out for answers that are partially true- these are answers that contain a description of something that happened in the argument but that also contains information that did not. This will also be wrong - Reverse answers and opposite answers Pg 217
BOLD FACED QUESTIONS Find the conclusion and see how the bolded areas are tied to it.
Type 8 Parallel Reasoning Questions
Parallel reasoning questions ask you to identify the answer choice that contains reasoning most similar in structure to the reasoning in the stimulus. (You are doing a comparison) Examples of the question stem: - Which of the following is most closely parallel in it reasoning to the reasoning in the argument above? - Which in of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning most similar to that exhibited by the argument above? - Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to the argument above? They all deal with a certain layout or pattern. You must examine the general features of the argument in the answer choice and match them to the argument in the stimulus. What to consider as wrong Answer choices with the same SUBJECT MATTER as the stimulus is WRONG Answer choices that have the conclusion and premises laid out in the same way are wrong also. What to look for in order to parallel the stimulus and the Answer choice correctly -Method of reasoning -Conclusion- if the answer choice has a conclusion that does not match the one in the stimulus it is wrong. When matching conclusions you must match the "certainty level or intent of the conclusion" in the stimulus not necessarily the specific wording of the conclusion. Similar controlling words should be identified between the two (Never, could, should, must). This allows you to identify the certainty of the conclusion in the stimulus to be matched with the certainty of the conclusion in the answer choice. - Example: If the conclusion of the argument says "the reactor can supply the city power grid" an answer choice with similar control word usage would be one saying "the bank can meet the needs of customers." Sometimes words may be different but have the same functionality.
Example: 1. Stimulus conclusion: "So it is untrue that both of the French classes prof Alban will be (controlling word) teaching next term are introductory classes" - The correct answer choice: "so the building with the large public space that was recently completed will not be (controlling word) subject to city tax." The reason why it is correct though the controlling words are different is if you flip the one in the conclusion, it is really saying "Prof Alban will not be teaching introductory classes..." Once you get the right answer make sure the subject is not the same or the layout of the information is not the same. The conclusion in the answer choice can not say the same thing as the premise in the answer choice.
Example: The student body at this university takes courses in a wide range of disciplines. Miriam is a student at this university, so she takes courses in a wide range of disciplines. Which one of the following arguments exhibits flawed reasoning most similar to that in the argument?
Answer: The editorial board of this law journal has written on many legal issues. Luise is on the board, so she has written on many legal issues. Controlling words are similar/same. and the starting of the conclusion is the same (has to be. The conclusion can not repeat something in the premise.
These questions below could fall into any of the above question types
Question Type 9 Numbers and percentages
If the percentage increases but the corresponding number decreases then the overall total must have decreased Words that introduce numerical ideas: Amount, quantity, sum, total, count Words for percentages: Percent, portion, fraction, ratio, probability, share, segment
Note: Rules Make sure you still follow through with your reasoning while applying these processes. - If the stimulus contains percentage or portion information only, avoid answers that contain hard numbers. - If the stimulus contains only numerical information, avoid answers that contain percentage or portion information - If the stimulus contains both percentage and numerical information, any answer choice that contains numbers, percentages or both may be true. Market Share: Regardless of the size of a market and even though the total amount of the market can shift, the total market share always ad up to 100% Because market share is a numbers and percentages concept, market share can change when factors in the market change. Market share is simply the portion of a market that a company controls
Type 10 Cause and Effect
You may be asked to Weaken, Strengthen or Find the flaw or assumption for this type The cause and effect reasoning appears in many these question types, often in the conclusion where the author mistakenly claims that one event causes another. Example: Last week IBM announced a quarterly deficit and the stock market dropped 10 points. Thus, IBM’s announcement must have caused the drop. Most Causal conclusions are flawed because there can be Alternate explanations for the stated relationships. -Causality occurs when one event is said to make another occur. Note that the cause must occur before the effect.
How to recognize CAUSALITY
There is an identifiable EXPRESSIION used to indicate that a causal relationship is present. These are: caused by, because of, responsible for, reason for, leads to, induced by, promoted by, determined by, produced by, was a factor in, is an effect of. All these simply state that one thing caused another.
Two scenarios that lead to causal conclusion: 1. One event causing another - Do not fall into the trap of assuming that the first even caused the second event 2. Two or more events occur the same time - Events could simply be correlated without causing each other. Example: Eating ice-cream has been found to correlate with the murder rate. Therefore, consuming ice-cream must cause one to be more likely to commit murder. (This is wrong to assume). There could be something else that causes both those rates to rise example the hot weather.
How to attack a causal conclusion Whenever you identify a causal relationship in the Conclusion, always be prepared to either Weaken or Strengthen the argument. Weakening this argument: 1.) Find an alternative cause. 2.) Show that even when the cause occurs, the effect does not occur. 3.) Show that although the effect occurs the cause did not occur. 4) Show the relationship in reverse. 5.) Stats problem exists with data. 6.) A combination of events could have caused the outcome, or the events individually could have caused the outcome. This depends on the stimulus
For Causality and Strengthening questions: The answer will - Eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect. One cause should be - Show that when the cause occurs the effect occurs and vice versa - No reversed relationship For Assumption and Causality: The answer - Eliminates any alternate causes for the stated effect. One cause should be - Show that when the cause occurs the effect occurs and vice versa - No reversed relationship
The words EXCEPT and LEAST in Strengthening and Weakening, AND OTHER question TYPE Do not think that when you see these words that the Correct answer is automatically the opposite of what is asked. Example, When a "˜Weaken Except question arise, your answer is not necessarily something that will strengthen the argument. It could also include an answer that has NO EFFECT. This method applies to all question types. The Correct answer will not do what the question asks you to do. If it asks "Flaw Except" the correct answer won’t describe the flaw. For example: - For Strengtheners: Four out of the 5 questions will be supporters, while one is not. - For Weakeners: Four out of five of the answers will weaken, while the other is not.