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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2012, 20:22
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234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land. :?:
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by ankurgupta03 on 26 Feb 2014, 23:38, edited 1 time in total.
underlined the question
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2012, 20:41
D sounds like the modifier is for 'declining value'. right?
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2012, 20:46
outbackvandy wrote:
D sounds like the modifier is for 'declining value'. right?


Which can modify only the noun preceding
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2012, 22:35
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2012, 23:40
mourinhogmat1 wrote:
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.


The catch here is between option D and E - both use "are". Please explain the difference
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2012, 23:57
devinawilliam83 wrote:
mourinhogmat1 wrote:
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.[/
quote]
The catch here is between option D and E - both use "are". Please explain the difference



Between D and E it's pretty straight forward. "which" is modifying the harvest seasons in D. This is wrong because original intention is to say : declining values = collateral --> used by farmers and NOT harvest season = collateral --> used by farmers.
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2012, 01:40
Hey,

IMO, in most of the questions i have encountered so far an '-ing' modifier at the beginning of the sentence modifies a Noun. In this case, The collateral is the Noun, which the 'Declining values..' modifies.

Also, most of the times the relative pronoun 'which' refers to the preceding noun. But, at times 'which' when preceded by a Noun + prepositional phrase will refer to the Noun.

In this question, 'which' can also refer to the 'Declining values'. But, choice 'E' overrides this ambiguity by using 'the collateral' to be modified by the '-ing' modifier.

Please correct me if am wrong. :)

HTH.
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2012, 02:40
Correct answer is E --the collateral is appositive here modifying farm equipment and land

D -- is quite awkward though don't have Subject Verb Agreement error
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2012, 18:51
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 15 Mar 2012, 02:50
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ENAFEX wrote:
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is


Declining values for farm equipment and land,---------, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring

therefore it should be 'are' not 'is' (Declining values is plural).

correct me if i am wrong.

shadab
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 15 Mar 2012, 05:02
shadabkhaniet wrote:
ENAFEX wrote:
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is


Declining values for farm equipment and land,---------, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring

therefore it should be 'are' not 'is' (Declining values is plural).

correct me if i am wrong.

shadab


You are right. Thanks. Not sure what I was thinking about. May be I got carried away reading only the anwer choices..
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 23 Mar 2012, 15:44
E. The question has been discussed in a recent thread.
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Re: collateral [#permalink] New post 23 Mar 2012, 19:44
+1 E

The declining values is plural hence requires are
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink] New post 26 Feb 2014, 19:53
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink] New post 03 Jun 2014, 08:56
devinawilliam83 wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land. :?:


I think option B, D which refers to "declining values". So declining values cannot be used as a collateral. Hence both of them are eliminated.

A, B, C can be eliminated - Subject verb agreement of "farm equipment and land" and "is" is incorrect.

E stays as the best answer.

Thanks
Ankit

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink] New post 25 Jun 2014, 01:54
devinawilliam83 wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land. :?:


Errors
1. Subject-verb agreement ( Declining values,........, are ) A,B,C eliminated
2. Idioms - Collateral to ( incorrect), Collateral against (correct )
Borrow against ( suspect ) , borrow to ( correct ) ... D eliminated

E correct answer
Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral   [#permalink] 25 Jun 2014, 01:54
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